Автор Петр Зайцев, 11.08.2009 16:17:18
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ЦитатаPhase 3 of the EELV upgrade plan is based around development of a new U.S.-designed liquid-oxygen/kerosene main engine to replace the Russian-supplied RD-180 used in the Atlas IV. The Air Force Research Laboratory is planning a hydrocarbon booster demonstration in 2018, and if the new engine is used in Atlas V, it would pave the way for its use in the reusable booster system (RBS) that could replace the EELV after 2030. The RBS would have reusable first and expendable second stages.
ЦитатаULA Finding its Stride In Rocket Production By Mike Gruss | Nov. 1, 2013 United Launch Alliance receives its 2013 delivery of Atlas 5 RD-180 engines from RD Amross. The four engines arrived on an Antonov aircraft at Huntsville International Airport in Alabama and were transported to ULA's facility in Decatur, Ala. Credit: ULA photo DECATUR, Ala. -- As United Launch Alliance (ULA) prepares for a busy launch calendar in 2015 and 2016, the company's main rocket assembly facility here is operating at the highest capacity in its 15-year history, ULA officials said.A total of 26 rockets are in various stages of assembly at the plant, which began life in 1997 as a production facility for the Boeing-designed Delta 4 launcher. The Lockheed Martin-designed Atlas 5 was added after 2006, when the two aerospace giants merged their government launch businesses to create ULA.With 140,000 square meters of floor space, the plant was sized to crank out up to 40 Delta 4 rocket cores per year, a requirement that was based in large part on projections of robust commercial demand for satellite launches. But the commercial market collapsed, a development that ultimately forced Boeing and Lockheed Martin, once bitter rivals in the launch business, into each other's arms. With the addition of the Atlas 5, the factory's output averages about a dozen vehicles per year.SpaceNews visited the Decatur plant Oct. 22, the first time a print media outlet has toured the building in at least three years.The occasion was the annual shipment of Russian-built RD-180 engines used to power the Atlas 5's main stage. The four engines, supplied by the U.S.-Russian RD-Amross joint venture, arrived at the Huntsville International Airport, about a half-hour drive from Decatur, on a Russian cargo plane from Moscow.Within hours of the engines' arrival the Decatur plant, a completed Atlas 5 that will be used to launch NASA's Tracking and Data Relay Satellite-L satellite left the factory for its journey by ship to Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Fla. The launch is scheduled for January 2014."This is probably the busiest we've been," said Steve Crow, ULA's senior manager for factory support. He was the plant's 32nd employee when he started in 1998.Today the plant employs more than 800 people, including about 200 who have been hired because of increased work in recent years. About half of those employees are classified as "touch labor," meaning they work directly on the rockets. The other half are support.In addition, about 35 government employees oversee operations, including two from the Air Force and others from the Defense Contract Management Agency, NASA and the Aerospace Corp., the not-for-profit center that provides engineering support for U.S. national security space programs.ULA has consolidated much of the assembly that its legacy companies previously performed in Denver, San Diego and Pueblo, Colo., at Decatur. ULA, which is headquartered near Denver, also has fewer than 200 people working at a plant in Harlingen, Texas, that fabricates and builds unpressurized structures, including payload fairings and adapters.The current mix of rockets in production at the plant, so large that many employees use electric carts or bicycles to get around, includes 13 Atlas 5 rockets, nine Delta 4s and four Delta 2s. The Delta 2 is no longer in production, but ULA recently sold four of the five remaining vehicles to NASA, and these are now being readied for their missions.The process of building a rocket typically takes about one year from start to finish. They begin as oversized sheets of aluminum that are cut, cleaned, deburred, shaped through thousands of repetitions of pounding, pressure tested, insulated and assembled.Engines typically arrive at least one year ahead of launch, company officials said. ULA currently has 2.5 years worth of Atlas 5 engine inventory on hand.Broc Cote, ULA's RD-180 program manager, said the company expects to take delivery of five RD-180 engines next year and six in 2015. The Delta 4 uses a U.S.-built main engine dubbed the RS-68.Although the Atlas 5 and Delta 4 have similar upper-stage engines -- both use variants of Aerojet Rocketdyne's RL-10 -- they are completely different designs. ULA is nevertheless working to introduce greater commonality to the Atlas 5 and Delta 4 production process to reduce costs.Today, about 50 percent of the company's assembly procedures are common to both vehicles, Crow said. But ULA is under pressure to do more to bring down Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle program costs, which have skyrocketed in recent years, prompting the Air Force to take steps to bring competition to the national security market.As part of its cost-cutting strategy, the Air Force is negotiating a block buy of 36 rocket cores from ULA on a sole-source basis. At the same time, however, the service is planning to competitively order an additional 14 missions, giving upstarts like Space Exploration Technologies Corp., commonly known as SpaceX, a chance to break into a market that ULA has had largely to itself since its formation.ULA, which already uses the same launch teams for Atlas 5 and Delta 4, is looking for ways to bring even more commonality to the manufacturing process, Crow said. Those ideas are regularly vetted by an engineering review board and must also prove they can save the company money, he said.The U.S. government is expected to spend some $44 billion on satellite launches and related services over the next five years, according to the U.S. Government Accountability Office.
ЦитатаULA signs deal to deliver three-dozen booster coresBY JUSTIN RAYSPACEFLIGHT NOWPosted: January 27, 2014 CAPE CANAVERAL, FL - A blockbuster rocket-buying agreement has been signed between the Air Force and United Launch Alliance, the supplier of boosters for national security spaceflight. Credit: Walter Scriptunas II / Scriptunas Images The deal aims to produce 36 booster cores for the Pentagon's use over the next few years of Atlas 5 and Delta 4 Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicles. Delivery of the rockets through 2017 comes at a savings of $4.4 billion over previous estimates in President Obama's FY 2012 budget. Скрытый текст: "We congratulate the Department of Defense for successfully leading efficient acquisition approaches and better buying practices by leveraging Economic Order Quantity (EOQ) purchasing to enable ULA to deliver several billions of dollars of savings to the U.S. Government over the contract period of performance," said Michael Gass, ULA president and CEO. "ULA has been entrusted with the nation's most important and valuable national security space assets that provide our warfighters critical capabilities. With the award of this contract, ULA will continue to deliver the most capable and successful family of launch vehicles ever developed." The first batch of 7 cores under the three dozen Block Buy are four Air Force missions -- Atlas 5-501, Atlas 5-511, Delta 4 Medium+ 4,2 and 5,4 rockets -- and one Delta 4-Heavy for the National Reconnaissance Office. The goal strives to stabilize the rocket production business while giving the government the advantage of buying in bulk to drive down the costs of putting satellites into space. "This contracting approach brings significant value to our customer and helps realize the cost savings ULA continues to achieve in consolidating the Atlas and Delta systems," said Gass. "The contract provides the proper incentives to enable continued cost reductions while balancing risk to ensure continued mission success for these critical national missions. This contract also reflects the commitment of ULA and our suppliers to maintain our nation's national security needs while aggressively responding to the fiscal constraints the nation faces." Credit: Walter Scriptunas II / Scriptunas Images Created in the 1990s as the next-generation families of boosters to haul all of the U.S. national security spacecraft, from the smallest weather satellites to the world's largest eavesdropping birds, the Air Force's EELV fleet has become the mainstay in spacelift operations today. Both the Atlas 5 and Delta 4 were designed as modular systems with different sized nose cones for added room when needed, the ability to add varying numbers of strap-on solid motors for extra power, even two options for an upper stage on the Boeing vehicle to tailor a rocket to the payload it would carry. The result was phasing out the Air Force's reliance on the medium-class Delta 2 and Titan 2, the intermediate Atlas 2, heavy-lift Titan 4 rockets and all of the vast infrastructure needed for the four different rocket lines. EELV was the path forward for military space, a collection of rockets built through just two systems to span the full range of needs the Pentagon could invision to keeping its constellations of communications, navigation and weather satellites flying high, plus delivering critical performance to the National Reconnaissance Office and its management of the overhead surveillance system for the U.S. government. Although competition from upstart SpaceX could be in the offing later this decade, the Air Force conceived the EELV rockets with seed money to Lockheed Martin and Boeing to spur development of the Atlas 5 and the Delta 4, and now runs both systems with the United Launch Alliance. In an effort to ensure both rocket lines remained viable for assured access to space and to erase the duplicate overhead costs, the two parent companies formed ULA in 2006 and transferred the Atlas 5 and Delta 4 products to the commercial firm that Gass has presided over since its inception. ULA serves the Air Force, the spy satellite agency at the National Reconnaissance Office and NASA for government payload deployments. Credit: Walter Scriptunas II / Scriptunas ImagesWith retirement of the space shuttle, nixing the once-proposed Constellation program back to the Moon and a cloudy picture of what is next in exploration, the U.S. propulsion industry was thrown into a state of turmoil, causing prices to rise given the unknown future. The inaugural launch for EELV came on Aug. 21, 2002, when an Atlas 5 carried a European television satellite to orbit for Eutelsat. The new era for U.S. rockets continued that November when the first Delta 4 blasted off carrying another commercial spacecraft for the same Paris-based operator, giving both EELVs a paying passenger on their debuts. The first Air Force satellite flew on the third flight, sending a communications satellite for the troops into orbit in March 2003 atop a Delta 4. The next major milestone in the program came in December 2004 when the heavy-lift version of Delta 4, a triple-barreled booster to carry the largest and heaviest payloads, soared on a test flight to iron out the bugs before the costliest national assets were entrusted to the vehicle on subsequent flights. It was a fortuitous decision to conduct such a demonstration without a real satellite onboard. A phenomenon, called cavitation, caused bubbles to form in the liquid oxygen plumbing that fooled instrumentation into thinking the tanks were running empty, shutting down the main engines prematurely. The condition was thoroughly analyzed and corrected, allowing Delta 4-Heavy to assume the big payload launches from the retiring Titan 4 rocket, fulfilling one of the primary purposes for EELV.
ЦитатаFour Delta 4-Heavy rockets part of ULA block buy dealBY JUSTIN RAYSPACEFLIGHT NOWPosted: January 30, 2014 CAPE CANAVERAL, FL - There will be 28 launches of Atlas 5 and Delta 4 rockets enabled through the new block buy, including four Heavy rockets, with the three dozen cores purchased by the Pentagon. Credit: Gene Blevins/LA Daily News"This contract action saves $4.4 billion in taxpayer funds fr om what was originally submitted in the FY12 President's Budget request. That in itself is a significant achievement but the block buy also stabilizes the U.S. launch industrial base while setting up a competitive environment going forward," according to the Air Force press desk. "This contract locks in firm-fixed prices for launch services for the next five years to support the National Security Space (NSS) manifest. These launch services cover missions wh ere only ULA is capable of meeting the required mission performance." The Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle Launch Vehicle Production Services (LVPS) and Capability contract award to United Launch Alliance has a potential value of up to $10 billion, which includes future LVPS orders and the annual priced capability options through FY19. The current contract value is $2.6 billion. " The long term commitment and stable production quantities allowed ULA to commit to year over year cost reductions for the associated capability to launch the 36 cores and the previously-procured cores not yet launched," the Air Force said. "The 36 EELV cores for the Air Force, National Reconnaissance Office and Navy will be procured across FY13-17. The contract also includes the capability to launch those cores and previously-procured cores from ULA, the last of which is scheduled to launch in 2019." The contract procures a variety of launch vehicle configurations to meet the manifest for such satellites as GPS, AEHF, SBIRS and MUOS. There are four Delta 4-Heavy launch vehicles as part of the 36 core commitment. "The Air Force's guiding priority in this effort is to continue our proven record of successful launches while continuing to be a good steward of the American taxpayer's money. This contract obtained near-term savings from our existing supplier. We continue to work with potential New Entrants to gain the benefits of competition as soon as possible," the press desk said. Read our earlier story on the deal.
ЦитатаU.S. Air Force Claims Big Savings on EELV Block Buy By Mike Gruss | Jan. 31, 2014 A ULA Delta 4 Heavy rocket lofts a satellite for the U.S. National Reconnaissance Office in August. In a $530 million EELV contract modification announcement in December, the U.S. Air Force listed five rocket configurations including the Delta 4 Heavy, which uses three rocket cores in a side-by-side configuration. Credit: ULA photoWASHINGTON -- United Launch Alliance (ULA) and the U.S. Air Force have come to contractual terms for the first batch of rockets in a long-awaited bulk purchase that the service said forms the core of its strategy for saving money on a program whose soaring costs once made it a lightning rod for criticism.Setting the stage for the upcoming competitive phase of the Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle (EELV) program, Denver-based ULA and the Air Force claim the new contracting structure has already saved taxpayers billions of dollars. Скрытый текст: The Air Force in 2013 announced three contracts with ULA whose total combined value is just under $2.6 billion, including an initial $1 billion order in June to support seven EELV missions. In December, the Air Force announced a $530 million contract modification "for fiscal 2014 through fiscal 2017 launch vehicle production services and options for that associated launch capability for fiscal 2015 through fiscal 2019." The December announcement listed five rocket configurations including a Delta 4 Heavy, which uses three rocket cores in a side-by-side configuration, meaning that together the contracts cover 14 of the 36 EELV rocket cores anticipated in the multiyear block buy.Also included in ULA's current Air Force contract portfolio is a one-year deal worth nearly $1 billion, announced in October, for so-called EELV Launch Capability. This is the latest in a series of contracts ULA gets on an annual basis to cover services not necessarily associated with a given launch, and which have been branded as a subsidy by ULA's prospective competitors.The block buy is part of the Air Force's two-pronged strategy for reducing EELV costs, the other being the introduction of competition in U.S. national security launches. ULA has had that business almost entirely to itself since it was created in 2006 by the merger of the U.S. government launch businesses of Lockheed Martin and Boeing.The Air Force plan entails buying the 36 rocket cores fr om ULA on a sole-source basis. An additional 14 missions will be awarded competitively, giving upstarts like Space Exploration Technologies Corp. of Hawthorne, Calif., a crack at the market. Buying in bulk is a tried and true method for reducing unit costs. To give an example, ULA in 2010 quoted prices for an Atlas 5 launch to NASA that ranged from $104 million to $334 million. Company officials in early 2011 said uncertainty about how many rockets the Air Force would commit to buying accounted for the wide variance in the NASA proposal. A large Air Force commitment, ULA officials said, would drive the actual costs to NASA toward the lower end of the scale."This contract stabilizes the U.S. launch industrial base while saving a substantial amount of taxpayer money and setting the program up for competition going forward," Capt. Adam Gregory, a spokesman for the secretary of the Air Force, said in a Jan. 15 email. "The contract is the largest component of the EELV initiatives that have saved $4.4 billion in total program cost since the President submitted the FY2012 Budget to Congress in February 2011."Adding up the NumbersA complete accounting of wh ere claimed savings are coming from was not immediately available, however, in part because the Air Force and ULA do not disclose EELV program costs on a per-rocket basis. A review of Air Force budget planning documents dating back to 2011, meanwhile, shows some anticipated decline in EELV spending, but not nearly $4.4 billion worth.Complicating the picture is the fact that anticipated EELV budgets tend to ebb and flow as the number of expected launches in any given year changes. Moreover, a significant portion of the EELV budget is classified. According to budget documents leaked last year by National Security Agency contractor-turned-whistleblower Edward Snowden and reported by The Washington Post, the U.S. National Reconnaissance Office, which buys and operates the nation's classified spy satellites, requested $1.3 billion for launch services in 2013. Since 2012, a Trend of Declining CostsUnclassified budget documents indicate that the Air Force's share of the EELV budget in 2013 and 2014 wound up being a combined $782 million less than was anticipated when the service submitted its 2012 spending plan. Each year's spending plan includes five-year projections for each program.For example, the Air Force's 2012 future-years plan anticipated the EELV program would need more than $2 billion in 2014. But the service's actual request for 2014 was considerably less, at $1.88 billion, and Congress appropriated just $1.51 billion.ULA cited the cut of nearly $370 million from the 2014 request as an indication that program costs are coming down significantly. The "reduction in the omnibus bill shows the benefits associated with an efficient procurement approach and contract incentive structures to deliver real, near-term savings without sacrificing the reliability our customers have come to expect," ULA spokeswoman Jessica Rye said in a Jan. 16 email. Additionally, the out-year projections accompanying the 2014 request show an anticipated decline in EELV spending of $937 million from 2015-2017 compared with the projections in the 2012 and 2013 requests. But projecting future-year budgets is like predicting the weather -- the further out one goes, the less reliable the estimates become. Moreover, future savings -- or cost growth -- can vary widely depending on which year's projections are used as the baseline. For example, the out-year EELV cost projections in the 2012 request were dramatically higher than the previous year's request. Michael Gass, ULA's president and chief executive, said the Defense Department is buying the company's rockets on a scale and timeline that minimizes inventory and ordering costs.This "brings significant value to our customer and helps realize the cost savings ULA continues to achieve in consolidating the Atlas and Delta systems," Gass said in an email Jan. 13. "The contract provides the proper incentives to enable continued cost reductions while balancing risk to ensure continued mission success for these critical national missions."SpaceX Weighs in with its Own EstimatesSpaceX, meanwhile, which is awaiting Air Force certification of its Falcon 9 v1.1 rocket to carry national security payloads, believes it can save taxpayers about $1 billion a year from 2015-2017.SpaceX, which likely will be competing against ULA -- and perhaps others -- for the 14 missions that the Air Force is putting up for grabs, is calling for the service to eliminate the contracting structure under which ULA receives two separate lines of funding: One for launch vehicles and related services; and the EELV Launch Capability funding. "SpaceX expects the billion dollar plus fixed payment subsidy (aka the ELC) to ULA to be phased out over time, as that is obviously contrary to fair and open competition," Elon Musk, the company's chief executive, said in an email.The Air Force is expected to begin awards for the competitively bid launches in 2015 for missions launching in 2017
ЦитатаВВК пишет:Как -то не двузначно Спейс Х назвали выскочкой
ЦитатаAir Force To Re-examine RD-180 Production, Dual-launch Funding By Mike Gruss | Feb. 10, 2014 The U.S. Air Force will study the Atlas 5 rocket's RD-180 main engine, built by Russia's NPO Energomash and sold to ULA by RD-Amross, a joint venture between Energomash and United Technologies Corp. Credit: ULA photo THULE AIR FORCE BASE, Greenland -- The U.S. Air Force is initiating an extensive review of nearly every element of its launch activities for 2017 and beyond, including the feasibility of U.S. production of the Russian-built RD-180 rocket engine and scrapping the service's involvement in developing dual-launch capabilities. The study, expected to start in several weeks, is one of several exercises led by Gen. William Shelton, commander of Air Force Space Command, that are intended to help shape the future of the service's space portfolio. In an interview with SpaceNews en route to Thule Air Base Jan. 27, he described the launch study as one of his major initiatives for 2014. The key, he said, is to find the right contracting strategy for space launches in future years. "We have to be mindful of the whole gamut of capability. We're trying to drive to smaller and smaller satellites but we'll still have heavy satellites come out of the National Reconnaissance Office. We may have some heavy satellites of our own," he said. "You've got to be able to go down to heavy to a medium class and maybe even a small class in national security payloads in the future. Covering that entire spectrum and having that right strategy in place, and I'm really talking contracting strategy here, is going to be key for where we're headed."For nearly a decade, United Launch Alliance, a Boeing-Lockheed Martin joint venture, has had a virtual monopoly on the national security launch market with its Atlas 5 and Delta 4 rockets. But the Air Force plans to introduce competition in the coming years, giving new entrants like Space Exploration Technologies Corp. a shot. The study also will examine the Atlas 5's RD-180 main engine, built by NPO Energomash in the Moscow region and sold to ULA by RD-Amross, a joint venture between the Russian manufacturer and United Technologies Corp. Although ULA says it has a solid stockpile of RD-180s, reliance on Russian engines for national security launch has long been a simmering concern, one that heated up last year amid reports that the Russian government was mulling a ban on their export to the United States."We believe that they're going to produce RD-180s and sell them to us so we're not really concerned," Shelton said.In November, however, Sen. Pat Toomey (R-Pa.) introduced a bill calling for an estimate of the costs of manufacturing an alternative to the Russian-made RD-180 engine in the United States. The bill also asked for an estimate of the savings that a U.S. engine would provide during the life of the Air Force's Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle (EELV) program, on which Denver-based ULA is prime contractor."If Atlas is going to be the workhorse for us forever, do you want to continue to buy RD-180s forever?" Shelton said. "Do you want to look at co-production here in the United States, something along those lines?"Bill Parsons, president and chief executive of RD-Amross of West Palm Beach, Fla., told SpaceNews in October that while the company likes the idea of building the RD-180 in the United States -- RD-Amross has all the designs for the engine -- doing so could increase its cost by as much as 50 percent. Shelton was skeptical. "I think there's certainly people have their own motivations for making those kind of statements," Shelton said. "Do we want to insulate ourselves from future concerns about reliability of delivery of RD-180s? That is a true national security question."Derived from the giant Soviet-era RD-170 engine, the kerosene-fueled RD-180 was developed during the 1990s for Lockheed Martin's commercial Atlas 3 rocket, which morphed into the Atlas 5 under the EELV program. ULA currently has 2.5 years' worth of Atlas 5 engine inventory on hand at its factory in Decatur, Ala., and is expected to receive five engines next year and six engines in 2015.The launch study also will re-examine Air Force plans to develop the capability to launch two satellites on the same rocket, known as dual launch. Lockheed Martin Space Systems of Denver, prime contractor on the next-generation GPS 3 navigation satellites, and ULA have worked to develop such a capability for the Atlas 5, and Lockheed executives have said dual launches could save as much as $50 million per satellite. Plans had called for dual launches beginning with the ninth GPS 3 satellite. Congress appropriated $20 million in 2014 for the Air Force's EELV engineering, manufacturing and development account, which funds the dual-launch development activity. But Shelton said the service now is disinclined to continue supporting that effort after potential bidders for the GPS 3 launches complained that the dual-launch funding could tip the scales in ULA's favor."We got some fairly serious concern from new entrants that dual launch was a way of shutting them out of GPS launches. And I hadn't even thought about that until they brought it up," Shelton said. "So what we're looking at is dual launch really the way we want to go? Does the government want to fund dual launch? Certainly ULA can pursue dual launch if they want to do that with internal money. " Follow Mike on Twitter: @Gruss_SN
ЦитатаLL_ пишет:США рассматривают вопрос производства российских ракетных двигателей на своей территории
ЦитатаВал пишет:ЦитатаLL_ пишет:США рассматривают вопрос производства российских ракетных двигателей на своей территорииМетодом сборки из энергомашевских комплектующих? Запросто.Сделать РД180 на "своих" материалах - сначала 5 лет НИОКР, потом 5 лет отработки. Они себе такого позволить не смогут
ЦитатаСтарый пишет:ЦитатаВал пишет:ЦитатаLL_ пишет:США рассматривают вопрос производства российских ракетных двигателей на своей территорииМетодом сборки из энергомашевских комплектующих? Запросто.Сделать РД180 на "своих" материалах - сначала 5 лет НИОКР, потом 5 лет отработки. Они себе такого позволить не смогутИм проданы полностью все описания материалов и технологий.
ЦитатаДмитрий В. пишет:ЦитатаСтарый пишет: ЦитатаВал пишет: ЦитатаLL_ пишет: США рассматривают вопрос производства российских ракетных двигателей на своей территории Методом сборки из энергомашевских комплектующих? Запросто. Сделать РД180 на "своих" материалах - сначала 5 лет НИОКР, потом 5 лет отработки. Они себе такого позволить не смогут Им проданы полностью все описания материалов и технологий. Проблема в том, что им придется или воспроизводить эти материалы, или заменять их местными аналогами. В последнем случае придется пересчитывать все: прочность, тепловой расчет и т.д. Соответственно, испытания в полном объеме.
ЦитатаСтарый пишет: ЦитатаВал пишет: ЦитатаLL_ пишет: США рассматривают вопрос производства российских ракетных двигателей на своей территории Методом сборки из энергомашевских комплектующих? Запросто. Сделать РД180 на "своих" материалах - сначала 5 лет НИОКР, потом 5 лет отработки. Они себе такого позволить не смогут Им проданы полностью все описания материалов и технологий.
ЦитатаВал пишет: ЦитатаLL_ пишет: США рассматривают вопрос производства российских ракетных двигателей на своей территории Методом сборки из энергомашевских комплектующих? Запросто. Сделать РД180 на "своих" материалах - сначала 5 лет НИОКР, потом 5 лет отработки. Они себе такого позволить не смогут
ЦитатаLL_ пишет: США рассматривают вопрос производства российских ракетных двигателей на своей территории
ЦитатаДмитрий В. пишет:Проблема в том, что им придется или воспроизводить эти материалы, или заменять их местными аналогами. В последнем случае придется пересчитывать все: прочность, тепловой расчет и т.д. Соответственно, испытания в полном объеме.
ЦитатаСтарый пишет:ЦитатаДмитрий В. пишет:Проблема в том, что им придется или воспроизводить эти материалы, или заменять их местными аналогами. В последнем случае придется пересчитывать все: прочность, тепловой расчет и т.д. Соответственно, испытания в полном объеме.Воспроизведут. Чего там... Для бешеной собаки семь вёрст не крюк.
ЦитатаВал пишет:ЦитатаСтарый пишет:ЦитатаДмитрий В. пишет:Проблема в том, что им придется или воспроизводить эти материалы, или заменять их местными аналогами. В последнем случае придется пересчитывать все: прочность, тепловой расчет и т.д. Соответственно, испытания в полном объеме.Воспроизведут. Чего там... Для бешеной собаки семь вёрст не крюк.Никаких сомнений. Только это будет другой двигатель. И 7-10 лет. Как это у вас? НННШ Да и вот такие "Time for a Rocket Intervention" настроения сейчас там превалируют.
ЦитатаСтарый пишет:Фигня. Найдут отечественные материалы с характеристиками даже превышающими наши, милиметры округлят вверх до десятой или сотой дюйма и всё будет железобетонно.