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ЦитатаКорабль для полета человека на Луну прошел испытанияКирилл Панов 7 июля 2020 16:02 Согласно заявлению, сделанному NASA, инженеры должны были убедиться, что космический корабль Orion сможет выдерживать нагрузки, испытываемые при запуске, подъеме на орбиту и в суровых условиях глубокого космоса. Испытания проводились на объекте Waterton Canyon компании Lockheed Martin Space, расположенном недалеко от Денвера. В рамках программы «Артемида» на Луну будет доставлена первая женщина. Кроме того, будут вестись масштабные исследования поверхности спутника Земли, а к 2028 году полеты на Луну должны стать регулярными.Программа является продолжением американской космической миссии «Апполон», а название «Артемида» было выбрано потому, что эта греческая богиня -- сестра-близнец Аполлона.ЦитатаStructural tests are now complete on an identical test version of @NASA_Orion, our spacecraft that will take astronauts to the Moon and back on #Artemis I. Here's how we pushed it to its physical limits: https://t.co/IGoIOykiqM pic.twitter.com/iD7JUBBtzm-- NASA (@NASA) July 2, 2020Первым к Луне отправится пустой корабль -- полет будет испытательным. За ним последует миссия «Артемида II» с экипажем. Но и этот полет будет испытательным. На спутник высадятся только члены экипажа миссии «Артемида III», что должно произойти в 2024 году.
ЦитатаStructural tests are now complete on an identical test version of @NASA_Orion, our spacecraft that will take astronauts to the Moon and back on #Artemis I. Here's how we pushed it to its physical limits: https://t.co/IGoIOykiqM pic.twitter.com/iD7JUBBtzm-- NASA (@NASA) July 2, 2020
Цитата: undefinedHeat Shield Milestone for First Artemis Mission with CrewKathryn HambletonPosted Jul 8, 2020 at 10:05 amImage Credit: NASA/Isaac WatsonTechnicians at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida recently finished meticulously applying more than 180 blocks of ablative material to the heat shield for the Orion spacecraft set to carry astronauts around the Moon on Artemis II.The heat shield is one of the most critical elements of Orion and protects the capsule and the astronauts inside from the nearly 5,000 degrees Fahrenheit temperatures, about half as hot at the Sun, experienced during reentry through Earth's atmosphere when coming home from lunar velocities.Prior to installation, several large blocks of the ablative material called AVCOAT were produced at the agency's Michoud Assembly Facility in New Orleans. They were then shipped to Kennedy and machined into 186 unique smaller blocks before being applied by the technicians onto the heat shield's underlying titanium skeleton and carbon fiber skin.To continue preparing the heat shield, engineers will conduct non-destructive evaluations to look for voids in the bond lines, as well as measure the steps and gaps between the blocks. The gaps will be filled with adhesive material and then reassessed. The heat shield will then undergo a thermal test after which it will be sealed, painted and then taped to help weather on-orbit thermal conditions. Once all testing has been completed, later this year the heat shield will be installed and bolted to the crew module.NASA is working to land the first woman and the next man on the Moon by 2024. Orion, along with NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) rocket, the Human Landing System and the Gateway in orbit around the Moon, are NASA's backbone for deep space exploration. Artemis II will be the first crewed mission of Orion atop the SLS rocket.
ЦитатаAug. 13, 2020NASA Begins Installing Orion Adapter for First Artemis Moon FlightTechnicians at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida are working to install an adapter that will connect the Orion spacecraft to its rocket for the Artemis I mission around the Moon. This is one of the final major hardware operations for Orion inside the Neil Armstrong Operations and Checkout Building prior to integration with the Space Launch System (SLS) rocket.The spacecraft adapter cone (seen at the bottom of the stack pictured above) connects to the bottom of Orion's service module and will later join another adapter connected to the top of the rocket's interim cryogenic propulsion stage (ICPS). During the process to install the cone on Orion, the spacecraft is lifted out of the Final Assembly and Systems Testing, or FAST, cell and placed into the Super Station support fixture.During flight, the SLS rocket separates in multiple stages as it pushes Orion into deep space. After accelerating Orion towards the Moon, the spacecraft will separate from the ICPS and adapter cone using pyrotechnics and springs.Next up before stacking Orion on the rocket, technicians will install coverings to protect fluid lines and electrical components on the crew module adapter that connects Orion to the service module. Workers also will install the solar array wings that will provide Orion with power, spacecraft adapter jettison fairings that enclose the service module for launch, and the forward bay cover that protects the parachute system.Orion will fly on the agency's Artemis I mission - the first in a series of increasingly complex missions to the Moon that will lead to human exploration of Mars. Through the Artemis program, NASA is working to land the first woman and the next man on the Moon by 2024.Last Updated: Aug. 13, 2020Editor: Brian Dunbar
ЦитатаAug. 19, 2020Orion Window Panel Complete for Front-Row View on Artemis Moon MissionAs NASA's Orion spacecraft approaches the Moon on the Artemis III mission to put the first woman and next man on the lunar surface, the crew will get a glimpse through the spacecraft's windows.The first element machined for the Artemis III Orion crew module - a cone panel with openings for windows which will provide that spectacular view - was designed by Orion's lead contractor, Lockheed Martin, and manufactured by AMRO Fabricating Corp., of South El Monte, California. The completed panel is on its way to NASA's Michoud Assembly Facility near New Orleans, Louisiana, where engineers will weld it with other panels as part of Orion's pressure vessel."It's truly exciting to have the first piece of the Artemis III Orion spacecraft completed at AMRO that will enable American astronauts to build a sustainable presence on the lunar surface," said Acting Orion Program Manager Howard Hu.In addition to machining elements for Orion's crew module, AMRO manufactures the panels for the core stage, launch vehicle stage adapter, and the Orion stage adapter for NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) rocket that will send Orion to the Moon during Artemis missions.Orion, SLS, and Exploration Ground Systems (EGS) programs are foundational elements of the Artemis program, beginning with Artemis I, the first integrated flight test of Orion and SLS next year. Artemis II will follow with the system's first crewed mission, taking humans farther into space than ever before.Human exploration of the Moon under the Artemis program offers a unique opportunity to test, refine, and perfect many of the technologies and complex operations that will be needed to land humans on Mars, perform their work on the surface and safely return them to Earth.Together, Orion, SLS and EGS are using suppliers in all 50 states, Washington D.C., and Puerto Rico - almost half of which are small businesses. These suppliers are creating jobs, reinvigorating manufacturing, and promoting American innovation in our aerospace industrial base and beyond through their work on NASA's exploration programs.Last Updated: Aug. 19, 2020Editor: Rachel Kraft
ЦитатаFirst Piece of Artemis III Orion Delivered to NASAKathryn HambletonPosted Aug 25, 2020 at 4:25 pmArtemis III cone panel arrives at NASA Michoud Assembly Facility.The first piece of the Orion spacecraft's pressure vessel for Artemis III - the mission that will land the first woman and next man on the Moon in 2024 - has arrived at NASA. The cone panel that will house the windows astronauts will use to view the Moon was designed by Orion's lead contractor, Lockheed Martin, and manufactured by AMRO Fabricating Corp., of South El Monte, California. It arrived at NASA's Michoud Assembly Facility in New Orleans on Aug. 21. In the coming months, the other six elements of the pressure vessel will arrive at Michoud where they will be welded together to build the underlying structure of Orion. The pressure vessel is Orion's primary structure that holds the pressurized atmosphere astronauts will breathe and work in while in the vacuum of deep space. Orion, the Space Launch System, and Exploration Ground Systems programs are foundational elements of the Artemis program, beginning with Artemis I, the first integrated flight test of Orion and SLS next year. Artemis II will follow as the first crewed mission, taking humans farther into space than ever before.
ЦитатаFinal Launch Abort System Motor Arrives for Artemis II Crewed MissionLinda HerridgePosted Aug 31, 2020 at 3:34 pmThe attitude control motor for the Artemis II mission arrives in the Launch Abort System Facility at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida on Aug. 28, 2020. Photo credit NASA/Ben SmegelskyThe last of three motors required to assemble the Launch Abort System for NASA's Artemis II mission-the first crewed mission of the Orion spacecraft-arrived at Kennedy Space Center in Florida on August 28. The attitude control motor (ACM) was delivered by truck from Northrop Grumman's manufacturing facility in Maryland, to the Launch Abort System Facility (LASF) at Kennedy.During launch of Orion atop the agency's Space Launch System rocket, the LAS motors work together to separate the spacecraft from the rocket in the unlikely event of an emergency during launch. The LAS includes three motors - the launch abort motor, the jettison motor, and the attitude control motor--that once activated, will steer the spacecraft carrying the astronauts to safety. The launch abort and attitude control motors were manufactured by Northrop Grumman; the jettison motor was manufactured by Aerojet Rocketdyne.The ACM operates to keep Orion's crew module on a controlled flight path in the event it needs to jettison and steer away from the rocket. It then reorients the crew module for parachute deployment and landing. The motor consists of a solid propellant gas generator, with eight proportional valves equally spaced around the outside of the 32-inch diameter motor. Together, the valves can exert up to 7,000 pounds of steering force to the vehicle in any direction upon command from the crew module.Inside the LASF, the motor will be placed on a special trailer for future integration with the rest of the LAS elements. It will remain in the LASF midbay, where the Artemis I LAS is being integrated with its designated crew and service module for its mission next year.Artemis II is the first crewed flight in a series of increasingly complex missions to the Moon that will lay the foundation for exploration of Mars and beyond. Artemis II will confirm all of the Orion spacecraft's systems operate as designed in the actual environment of deep space with astronauts aboard. As part of the Artemis program, NASA will send the first woman and next man to the Moon in 2024.
ЦитатаOrion Program Completes Key Review for Artemis IRachel KraftPosted Sep 1, 2020 at 12:32 pmNASA's Orion Program has completed the System Acceptance Review and Design Certification Review to certify the Artemis I spacecraft is fit for flight, ready to venture from Earth to the lunar vicinity, and return home for landing and recovery.The review examined every spacecraft system, all test data, inspection reports, and analyses that support verification, to ensure every aspect of the spacecraft has the right technical maturity.In effect, the review gives the stamp of approval to the entire spacecraft development effort and is the final formal milestone to pass before integration with the Space Launch System rocket.In addition to spacecraft design, the review certified all reliability and safety analyses, production quality and configuration management systems, and operations manuals.Orion, the Space Launch System, and Exploration Ground Systems programs are foundational elements of the Artemis program, beginning with Artemis I, the first integrated flight test of Orion and SLS first integrated flight test of Orion and SLS next year. Artemis II will follow as the first human mission, taking astronauts farther into space than ever before.
ЦитатаOrion Spreads its WingsAnna HeineyPosted Sep 17, 2020 at 10:37 amInside the Neil Armstrong Operations and Checkout Building at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida, technicians have extended one of the Artemis I solar array wings on Sept. 10, 2020. Prior to installation on the Orion spacecraft, the team performed an inspection to confirm proper extension and to ensure all of the mechanisms functioned as expected. The pictured solar array is one of four panels that will generate 11 kilowatts of power and span about 63 feet. The array is a component of Orion's service module, which is provided by the European Space Agency and built by Airbus Defence and Space to supply Orion's power, propulsion, air and water.The first in a series of increasingly complex missions, Artemis I will test the Orion spacecraft and Space Launch System as an integrated system ahead of crewed flights to the Moon. Under the Artemis program, NASA will land the first woman and the next man on the Moon in 2024.
ЦитатаFOLDING THE WINGS ON ORION FOR THE LAST TIME17 September 2020Earlier this week at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida, USA, the last solar wing for Orion was unfolded, tested and folded for launch - the next time it unfolds will be in orbit around Earth next year.Unfolded solar array wings at NASA's Kennedy Space Center. Credits: NASAThe first European Service Module that will power Orion on the Artemis I mission around the Moon is in final stages of integration and checks at the Neil Armstrong Operations and Checkout facility and one of the last tasks is to connect the four large solar wings to the main structure. Before integration the wings are unfolded and then folded for launch to ensure they operate as planned.Each 7 m wing are hinged at two points so they can be folded to fit inside the fairing of the Space Launch Systems rocket. After launch and in Earth orbit the four wings unfold to span 19 m and swivel and rotate to collect solar energy, turning it into electricity for the spacecraft's systems.As the wings are designed to be unfolded in space, they are not made withstand Earth's gravity. To test their functioning the Solar Array Wings are deployed with a rig that supports them on rails from above and follows their deployment. This video shows the structure and deployment earlier this year:youtu.be/oJn3XOHWBl0"This is a milestone for the teams as we have now completed all large hardware integrations. We won't see these solar panels again... except on camera after launch," emphasises Dominique Siruguet, ESA's European Service Module campaign manager, "It is a strange feeling as this is the first launch campaign whereby everybody is wearing masks to follow Covid-19 rules. Despite the world pandemic, the lunar programme is supported by exceptional teams that continue to work to ensure a successful flight next year."The Solar Wings use cells from a US company SolAero Technologies that are assembled by Airbus Defence and Space in The Netherlands into solar panels, while the solar array drive is manufactured by Ruag in Switzerland. In full sunlight they will provide 11.1 kW of power - enough to run two typical European households.Orion power generation infographics. Credits: ESA
ЦитатаSept. 18, 2020Boldly Go! NASA's New Space Toilet Offers More Comfort, Improved Efficiency for Deep Space MissionsIt's the space-age old question: how do astronauts go to the bathroom in space? The most basic human biological processes becomes challenging off-planet due in part to the lack of gravity. NASA is launching a new space toilet, the Universal Waste Management System (UWMS), to the International Space Station on Northrop Grumman's 14th contract resupply mission in September. Another UWMS unit will be installed in Orion for the Artemis II flight test that will send astronauts on a 10-day mission beyond the Moon and back.Credits: NASAThe "Universal" in UWMS is key: the central design concept can be easily integrated into different spacecraft and life support systems. On platforms like the space station where astronauts live and work for extended time periods, UWMS will feed pre-treated urine into a regenerative system, which recycles water for further use. For shorter duration missions, like Artemis II, UWMS also works with a system where waste is not pre-treated with chemicals and is simply stored for disposal. The toilet was designed to address astronaut feedback about comfort and ease of use. It also features a 65% smaller and 40% lighter build than the current space station toilet. Improved integration with other components of the space station water system will aid in recycling more urine, which, yes, the astronauts do drink after it is filtered and processed."We recycle about 90% of all water-based liquids on the space station, including urine and sweat," explains NASA astronaut Jessica Meir. "What we try to do aboard the space station is mimic elements of Earth's natural water cycle to reclaim water from the air. And when it comes to our urine on ISS, today's coffee is tomorrow's coffee!"For privacy, the toilet is located inside of a stall just like in a public restroom on Earth. The dual-stall configuration that you see here has already been installed on the space station and will house the Waste Hygiene Compartment which is currently in use on the space station and UWMS during this technology demonstration.Credits: NASAThe regenerative life support system on the space station is critical to reduce the need to launch supplemental water from Earth. Initial lunar missions will be shorter in duration, so these complex systems may not be necessary. Roundtrip missions to Mars, however, will take about two years and there will be no opportunities to top off the water supply. NASA's goal is to reach 98% recycling rates before the first human missions aboard a proposed Mars transport vehicle. The space station is currently the only in-space test location to validate long-term life support and recycling systems. How do space toilets work? In the absence of gravity, space toilets use air flow to pull urine and feces away from the body and into the proper receptacles. A new feature of the UWMS is the automatic start of air flow when the toilet lid is lifted, which also helps with odor control. By popular (astronaut) demand, it also includes a more ergonomic design requiring less clean-up and maintenance time, with corrosion-resistant, durable parts to reduce the likelihood of maintenance outside of the set schedule. Less time spent on plumbing means more time for the crew to spend on science and other high-priority exploration focused tasks. The crew use a specially shaped funnel and hose for urine and the seat for bowel movements. The funnel and seat can be used simultaneously, reflecting feedback from female astronauts. The UWMS seat may look uncomfortably small and pointy, but in microgravity it's ideal. It provides ideal body contact to make sure everything goes where it should.A team member demonstrates lifting the urine hose out of its cradled position like a crew member would for use. A funnel (not shown) is attached to the open end of this hose and can then be easily replaced or removed for disinfection.Credits: NASAThe UWMS includes foot restraints and handholds for astronauts to keep themselves from floating away. Everyone positions themselves differently while "going," and consistent astronaut feedback indicated that the traditional thigh straps were a hassle. Toilet paper, wipes, and gloves are disposed of in water-tight bags. Solid waste in individual water-tight bags is compacted in a removable fecal storage canister. A small number of fecal canisters are returned to Earth for evaluation, but most are loaded into a cargo ship that burns up on re-entry through Earth's atmosphere. Currently, fecal waste is not processed for water recovery, but NASA is studying this capability. "Going" beyond EarthIn space, every part of the water cycle is key for survival and advances in technology can make a pivotal difference in mission efficiency and success. As we prepare to return humans to the Moon with Artemis and look forward to the first human mission to Mars, life support systems will play a major role in keeping our astronauts healthy and safe as they live, work, and learn farther from Earth than ever before. Last Updated: Sept. 21, 2020Editor: Darcy Elburn
ЦитатаСША планируют доставить на МКС свой туалет14:38 23.09.2020 (обновлено: 14:39 23.09.2020)МОСКВА, 23 сен - РИА Новости. Первый туалет американского производства планируется доставить на Международную космическую станцию (МКС) в октябре, по характеристикам он будет лучше российского туалета, используемого астронавтами на станции в настоящее время, сообщило НАСА. Скрытый текст: Сейчас на МКС находятся два туалета российского производства. Изначально санузел был только в российском модуле "Звезда". В 2007 году НАСА заказало у России туалет для модуля Tranquility в связи с тем, что длительное время не могло разработать собственный аналог. За санузел НАСА заплатило 19 миллионов долларов. Еще один туалет российского производства планируется установить в новом модуле "Наука", запуск которого предполагается в 2021 году.По информации НАСА, туалет UWMS (Universal Waste Management System) был разработан космическим агентством "с учетом пожеланий астронавтов о комфорте и простоте использования" и будет установлен в модуле Tranquility американского сегмента МКС."Он также имеет конструкцию на 65% компактнее и на 40% легче, чем использующийся в настоящее время туалет на МКС", - отмечается в сообщении на сайте НАСА. Скрытый текст: Новый туалет должен привезти на МКС американский грузовой корабль Cygnus 3 октября. Его запуск ракетой-носителем Antares с российскими двигателями РД-181 на первой ступени с космодрома на острове Уоллопс (штат Вирджиния) намечается в ночь на 30 сентября.Новый туалет также планируется использовать на американском пилотируемом корабле Orion, который в 2023 году полетит с экипажем к Луне.
ЦитатаNASA надеется осуществить беспилотный полет корабля Orion вокруг Луны к ноябрю 2021 годаВАШИНГТОН, 23 сентября. /ТАСС/. Национальное управление США по аэронавтике и исследованию космического пространства (NASA) рассчитывает осуществить беспилотный полет установленного на ракету SLS (Space Launch System, SLS) корабля Orion вокруг Луны и его возвращение на Землю к ноябрю 2021 года. Об этом сообщил в среду глава ведомства Джеймс Брайденстайн на слушаниях в комитете по ассигнованиям Сената Конгресса США."Что касается ракеты SLS, то нам надо, чтобы запуск миссии Artemis 1 (первый этап лунной программы Artemis - прим. ТАСС) состоялся к ноябрю 2021 года, и тогда нам надо будет готовиться к Artemis 2 в 2023 году", - сказал он. Ранее: Ранее NASA представило обновленный план своей лунной программы Artemis, в котором отмечалось, что первый этап (Artemis 1), предусматривающий беспилотный полет корабля Orion вокруг Луны, намечен на 2021 год, а второй (Artemis 2), предполагающий облет естественного спутника Земли с экипажем на борту, - на 2023 год. Более конкретных сроков в нем не приводилось.Изначально первый этап программы был намечен на конец 2020 года, а второй - на 2022 год, однако помощник заместителя директора NASA Том Уитмайер в середине мая информировал, что начало реализации Artemis 1 будет перенесено на конец 2021 года в связи с задержками при создании ракеты-носителя SLS из-за распространения коронавируса.
ЦитатаOrion Test Articles Arrive to Kennedy for Testing on Future Artemis MissionsLinda HerridgePosted Sep 25, 2020 at 3:24 pmNASA's Super Guppy arrives at Kennedy Space Center's Launch and Landing Facility in Florida on Sept. 11, 2020, carrying the Orion Service Module Structural Test Article (SM-STA). Photo credit: NASA/Yulista Tactical Services, LLC/Tommy QuijasThe Orion Service Module Structural Test Article (SM-STA), composed of the European Service Module (ESM) and Crew Module Adapter (CMA), arrived at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida following the completion of the test campaign to certify the Orion Service Module for Artemis I. Transported via Super Guppy from Lockheed Martin's test facility in Denver, Colorado, on Sept. 11, components will now be used in testing for future Artemis missions."The Orion SM-STA supported testing in multiple configurations to validate the structural robustness of the vehicle under a variety of conditions that a spacecraft will experience on lunar missions for the Artemis program," said Rafael Garcia, Orion Test and Verification lead.At Kennedy, the Orion SM-STA test article will be separated from the CMA test article, and portions of the CMA test article will support qualifications tests in preparation for the Artemis II mission. The test version of the ESM will remain at Kennedy, in order to support future structural qualification tests such as testing what volume of sound and how much shaking the vehicle can handle for future Artemis missions.When tested together, the full test stack of Orion verified the spacecraft's structural durability for all flight phases of the Artemis I flight, which is designed to be an opportunity to test the kind of maneuvers and environments the spacecraft will see on future exploration missions. The test structures experienced launch and entry loads tests, intense acoustic vibration force, and shock tests that recreate the powerful blasts needed for critical separation events during flight. A lightning test was performed to evaluate potential flight hardware damage if the vehicle were to be hit by lightning prior to launch.The Artemis II flight will test a hybrid free return trajectory, which uses the Moon's gravitational pull as a slingshot to put Orion on the return path home instead of using propulsion. With astronauts aboard the spacecraft, additional validation is required of all vehicle components to certify the capsule prior to proving lunar sustainability with Artemis III and beyond.The first in a series of increasingly complex missions, Artemis I will test the Orion spacecraft and Space Launch System as an integrated system ahead of crewed flights to the Moon. Under the Artemis program, NASA will land the first woman and the next man on the Moon in 2024.
Цитата Jim Bridenstine @JimBridenstine 2 ч. назадLast week, all four solar arrays were installed on @NASA_Orion spacecraft for the Artemis I mission. Great work by the team @NASAKennedy!
Цитата Kathy Lueders @KathyLueders 3 ч. назад.@NASA_Orion's @esa Service Module structure arrives at @AirbusSpace in Bremen Germany for installation of power, storage, and propulsion components ahead of shipment to @NASAKennedy. This spacecraft will carry the first woman and next man to land on the Moon!