Orion

Автор Agent, 28.07.2009 07:35:14

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triage

24.09.2019 12:18:06 #3260 Последнее редактирование: 24.09.2019 17:24:05 от triage
Цитатаhttps://www.nasa.gov/press-release/nasa-commits-to-long-term-artemis-missions-with-orion-production-contract
Sept. 24, 2019
RELEASE 19-074
NASA Commits to Long-term Artemis Missions with Orion Production Contract

... The agency has awarded the Orion Production and Operations Contract (OPOC) to Lockheed Martin of Littleton, Colorado. Spacecraft production for the Orion program, managed at NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston, will focus on reusability and building a sustainable presence on the lunar surface.

... OPOC is an indefinite-delivery/indefinite-quantity contract that includes a commitment to order a minimum of six and a maximum of 12 Orion spacecraft, with an ordering period through Sept. 30, 2030. Production and operations of the spacecraft for six to 12 missions will establish a core set of capabilities, stabilize the production process, and demonstrate reusability of spacecraft components.

... With this award, NASA is ordering three Orion spacecraft for Artemis missions III through V for $2.7 billion.
The agency plans to order three additional Orion capsules in fiscal year 2022 for Artemis missions VI through VIII, at a total of $1.9 billion. Ordering the spacecraft in groups of three allows NASA to benefit fr om efficiencies that become available in the supply chain over time - efficiencies that optimize production and lower costs.

Spacecraft reusability - itself a significant cost saver for the agency - will help NASA build the capabilities for sustainable exploration at the Moon and beyond. The long-term plan is to reuse the recovered crew modules at least once. The first phase of reusability will start with Artemis II. Interior components of the spacecraft, such as flight computers and other high value electronics, as well as crew seats and switch panels, will be re-flown on Artemis V. The Artemis III crew module will be re-flown on Artemis VI.
 Скрытый текст:
The first six spacecraft will be acquired by cost-plus-incentive-fee ordering. Because the cost of a complex, high-tech system generally decreases over time as the design stabilizes and production processes mature, NASA will negotiate firm-fixed-price orders for future missions to take advantage of the anticipated spacecraft production cost decreases. Furthermore, the cost incentives on the cost-plus-incentive-fee orders are designed to motivate favorable cost performance during early OPOC production and drive substantially lower prices for any subsequent firm-fixed-price orders issued under this contract.

Work under this contract also will support production of NASA's lunar-orbiting Gateway and evolving mission requirements. Production of certain spacecraft components already designed and qualified for Orion will be provided for Gateway use, eliminating the need for the Gateway Program to develop and qualify similar components.

"The men and women at Johnson Space Center represent the best and brightest scientific minds, and I'm confident with additional Orion spacecraft they will push the limits of exploration to the Moon and beyond," said Sen. John Cornyn of Texas. "I commend the Trump Administration for recognizing the importance and tradition of Houston as the center of human spaceflight and exploring the next frontier."

Houston has long been the hub of America's human space exploration program, from the early days of Gemini, Mercury, and Apollo to Artemis. With NASA's accelerated return to the Moon, Johnson Space Center now is managing more major human spaceflight programs than ever before. In addition to the Orion program, the Texas facility also manages NASA's Gateway and International Space Station programs, and is home to the Mission Control Center and America's astronaut corps - the next moonwalkers. Johnson also manages the agency's Commercial Lunar Payload Services, the first two deliveries for which are targeted to launch to the Moon in July 2021.

"No other spacecraft in the world can keep humans alive hundreds of thousands of miles from Earth for weeks at a time with the safety features, crew accommodations, technical innovations, and reliability that Orion provides," said Mark Kirasich, Orion Program manager at Johnson. "With the design and development phase of Orion largely behind us, this new contract will enable us to increase efficiencies, reuse the spacecraft, and bring down the cost of reliably transporting people between earth and the Gateway."
NASA is working to land the first woman and next man on the Moon in five years as part of the agency's Artemis program. Orion, the Space Launch System rocket and Gateway are part of NASA's backbone for deep space exploration.
Work is well underway on both the Artemis I and II Orion spacecraft. Engineers at Kennedy Space Center in Florida have completed and attached the crew and service modules for Artemis I and are preparing the spacecraft for environmental testing. Meanwhile, teams at Kennedy are integrating thousands of parts into the crew module for Artemis II in preparation for the first crewed Artemis mission.
...

Artemis I and II - изготавливаются, стоимость не указана
Artemis missions III through V for $2.7 billion
plans to order ... in fiscal year 2022 for Artemis missions VI through VIII, at a total of $1.9 billion

В изложении наших СМИ получается х.з. что
Цитатаkommersant.ru              NASA заказало у Lockheed Martin 6-12 кораблей для полетов на Луну

Стоимость первых двух  космических кораблей оценивается в $2,7 млрд,  их должны поставить в  течение трех лет. Еще три корабля стоимостью $1,9  млрд могут появиться у  NASA к 2022 году.

https://tass.ru/kosmos/6918964

Контракт определяет стоимость трех Orion в $2,7 млрд и еще двух - в $1,9 млрд.

От LM
Цитатаhttps://news.lockheedmartin.com/2019-09-23-NASA-Awards-Lockheed-Martin-Contract-for-Six-Orion-Spacecraft

NASA Awards Lockheed Martin Contract For Six Orion Spacecraft
Production Starts on Spacecraft that will Take Astronauts to the Moon

DENVER, Sept. 23, 2019 /PRNewswire/ -- NASA and Lockheed Martin (NYSE: LMT) have finalized a contract for the production and operations of six Orion spacecraft missions and the ability to order up to 12 in total. Orion is NASA's deep space exploration spaceship that will carry astronauts from Earth to the Moon and bring them safely home. Lockheed Martin has been the prime contractor during the development phase of the Orion program.
 Скрытый текст:
"This contract clearly shows NASA's commitment not only to Orion, but also to Artemis and its bold goal of sending humans to the Moon in the next five years," said Rick Ambrose, executive vice president of Lockheed Martin Space. "We are equally committed to Orion and Artemis and producing these vehicles with a focus on cost, schedule and mission success."
The agency's Orion Production and Operations Contract (OPOC) is an indefinite-delivery, indefinite-quantity (IDIQ) contact for NASA to issue both cost-plus-incentive fee and firm-fixed-price orders. Initially, NASA has ordered three Orion spacecraft for Artemis missions III-V for $2.7 billion. Then in fiscal year 2022, the agency plans to order three additional Orion spacecraft for Artemis missions VI-VIII for $1.9 billion.

OPOC will realize substantial savings compared to the costs of vehicles built during the design, development, test and evaluation (DDT&E) phase.

Up to six additional Orion spacecraft may be ordered under the IDIQ contract through Sept. 30, 2030, leveraging spacecraft production cost data from the previous six missions to enable the lowest possible unit prices.

The first spacecraft delivered on this contract, Artemis III, will carry the first woman and the next man to the Moon in 2024, wh ere they will dock with the Gateway and ultimately land on the surface using a lunar landing system.
 Скрытый текст:
Orion is a critical part of the agency's Artemis program to build a sustainable presence on the lunar surface and to prepare us to move on to Mars.

Reusable Orion crew modules and systems, use of advanced manufacturing technologies, material and component bulk buys and an accelerated mission cadence all contribute to considerable cost reductions on these production vehicles.

"We have learned a lot about how to design and manufacture a better Orion--such as designing for reusability, using augmented reality and additive manufacturing--and we're applying this to this next series of vehicles. Driving down cost and manufacturing them more efficiently and faster will be key to making the Artemis program a success," said Mike Hawes, Orion program manager for Lockheed Martin Space. "One must also appreciate how unique Orion is. It's a spaceship like none other. We've designed it to do things no other spacecraft can do, go to places no astronaut has been and take us into a new era of human deep space exploration."

Lockheed Martin and NASA recently announced the completion of the Orion crew and service module being developed for the Artemis I mission, an uncrewed mission to the Moon. Work on the spacecraft for the Artemis II mission, the first crewed flight to the Moon, is well underway at the Kennedy Space Center in Florida.

tnt22

ЦитатаNASA Introduces New Spacesuits for the Moon and Mars

 NASA

15 окт. 2019 г.

At NASA Headquarters on Oct. 15, 2019, Administrator Jim Bridenstine introduced the Exploration Extravehicular Mobility Unit (xEMU) and Orion Crew Survival System suit which will be will be worn by first woman and next man as they explore the Moon as part of the #Artemis program.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rkb5YBlmlfIhttps://www.youtube.com/embed/rkb5YBlmlfI (1:10)

tnt22

ЦитатаLaunch Abort System (LAS) Jettison Motor Hot Fire Test

 NASA Johnson

16 окт. 2019 г.

A motor built by Aerojet Rocketdyne for the Launch Abort System (LAS) on NASA's Orion spacecraft was successfully tested by engineers at the Redstone Test Center on Redstone Arsenal in Huntsville, Alabama, October 16. During the third and final hot fire test, the jettison motor was fired for under two seconds in ambient temperatures to produce more than 40,000 pounds of thrust. With the series of static tests completed, Orion's LAS jettison motor is qualified and ready for flight on the Artemis II mission with astronauts. The LAS -- which will carry astronauts to safety in case of an emergency during launch or ascent -- consists of three motors, with the jettison motor being the last to fire. It ignites to separate the LAS from Orion for parachute deployment and a safe crew landing. The jettison motor also is the only part of the LAS that operates during normal mission scenarios, and detaches from Orion once it is no longer needed. The jettison motor is built by Aerojet Rocketdyne through a contract by NASA's prime contractor for Orion, Lockheed Martin.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1lUhFvL49fohttps://www.youtube.com/embed/1lUhFvL49fo?feature=oembed (0:24)

tnt22

ЦитатаOrion Fuels Artemis

 NASA Johnson

22 окт. 2019 г.

The Orion spacecraft is one of the major components of NASA's Artemis program, which will return humans to the Moon by 2024 in preparation for future missions to Mars.  Astronaut Randy Bresnik explains the role of Orion, in conjunction with the Space Launch System, Gateway lunar outpost and new lunar lander, in carrying a new generation of astronauts to the surface of the Moon and then safely home again to Earth.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VdTXCOkC8xQhttps://www.youtube.com/embed/VdTXCOkC8xQ (3:01)

tnt22

Цитата Mark Kirasich‏ @MarkKirasich 4 ч. назад

Amazing view looking down at @NASA_Orion's launch abort system for #Artemis I mission.


tnt22

ЦитатаInside Orion: Space Capsule Crew Systems

 Lockheed Martin

17 окт. 2019 г.

See the parts of the Orion spaceship that will keep astronauts safe and comfortable. From the glass cockpit displays to crew seats and life support systems, we take you inside Orion's crew systems.

The Orion space capsule is built for NASA, and is the only spaceship rated for deep space travel. It will bring the first woman and next man to the Moon - and eventually carry humans to Mars.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GT8B9AxWwmMhttps://www.youtube.com/embed/GT8B9AxWwmM (1:39)

Чебурашка

А блин... сегодня исполняется ровно  10 лет  короткому полёту Аres I-X
Как быстро время летит. Такое ощущение, как будто было вчера.
Бгг.. если бы не похерили тогда, возможно Арес с Орионом уже несколько лет возил людей на МКС

https://www.youtube.com/embed/LZ6gGNIXc8U?feature=oembed

tnt22

Цитата Chris G - NSF‏ @ChrisG_NSF 54 мин. назад

Flight sequence:

Artemis 1 (No Earlier Than late 2020 best case)
Artemis 2: 1st human Orion flight
Artemis Support Mission: Power/Propulsion Element
Artemis Support Mission: Pressurized module
Artemis Support Mission: Lander
Artemis 3: Human lunar landing
#NAC #HEO


53 мин. назад

Artemis 2 will be first flight of #Orion life support systems and first crew flight.  10 day mission duration. #NAC #HEO

tnt22

Цитата Chris G - NSF‏ @ChrisG_NSF 5 мин. назад

#Orion update. Most integrated functional chceck-outs complete.  Heatshield install not yet complete.  Mid-November it will go to Ohio.


5 мин. назад

Launch Abort System is ready to support mission.  Will be turned over for flight in November.


4 мин. назад

All 38 Ascent Abort Flight Test Objectives were accomplished with positive results. Final disposition of the test and data review on 20 Nov.


51 сек. назад

#Orion testing in Ohio will be thermal, vacuum, electro testing.  Should be back at KSC March 2020.
#NAC #HEO #Artemis1




34 сек. назад

This is the schedule for the #Orion for Artemis 2.
#NAC #HEO


tnt22

Цитата Mark Kirasich‏ @MarkKirasich 22 ч. назад

#Artemis I @NASA_Orion spacecraft at @NASAKennedy getting ready to ship to @NASAglenn Plum Brook Station Space Power Facility for thermal-vacuum testing.


tnt22

Цитата Airbus Space‏ @AirbusSpace 8 ч. назад

В ответ @MarkKirasich @NASA_Orion @esa

Good to see progress of Orion
Service Module update: progress as well
Here the ESM-2 at Airbus Bremen
#Artemis


tnt22

Цитата Orion Spacecraft‏ @NASA_Orion 5 ч. назад

Orion Astronauts will be happy campers as they sleep under the stars 240,000 miles away from Earth.
#Artemis



tnt22

Цитата Mark Kirasich‏ @MarkKirasich 12 мин. назад

Great effort by the @LockheedMartin team today as they lift the #Artemis I @NASA_Orion spacecraft out of the Final Assembly and System Testing cell in preparation for transport to @NASAglenn Plum Brook Station.


tnt22

Цитата Orion Spacecraft‏ @NASA_Orion 12 нояб.

#Artemis I Orion final assembly and systems testing is complete  at@NASAKennedy. Next stop: @NASAglenn Plum Brook Station in Sandusky, Ohio for thermal-vacuum testing. https://www.nasa.gov/image-feature/orion-moved-from-assembly-stand-ahead-of-shipment-to-ohio-for-tests ...




https://www.nasa.gov/image-feature/orion-moved-from-assembly-stand-ahead-of-shipment-to-ohio-for-tes...
ЦитатаNov. 13, 2019

Orion Moved from Assembly Stand Ahead of Shipment to Ohio for Tests



The Orion crew and service module stack for Artemis I was lifted out of the Final Assembly and Test (FAST) cell on Monday, November 11. The spacecraft has been stationed in the FAST cell since July for mating and closeout processing. The service module and crew module were moved separately into the cell, stacked and connected together for the mission. After lifting out of the cell, Orion will be attached to a tool called a verticator that rotates the stack from its vertical configuration to a horizontal configuration for transport to NASA's Plum Brook Station in Sandusky, Ohio, where it will undergo full environmental testing to certify the complete vehicle for flight. Once the vehicle returns to Kennedy in several months, it will return to the FAST cell for installation of final panels left off for environmental testing purposes and the service module's four solar arrays. Credit: NASA/Rad Sinyak

Last Updated: Nov. 13, 2019
Editor: Aimee Crane

tnt22

Цитата Mark Kirasich‏ @MarkKirasich 6 ч. назад

Wrapped up for transport, @NASA_Orion spacecraft leaves Operations and Checkout building at @NASAKennedy. The spacecraft will be loaded on @NASA's Super Guppy airplane ahead of transport to @NASAglenn Plum Brook station.




Chelsea‏ @CRPartridge 6 ч. назад

This is why today is so amazing- @NASA_Orion  has left the building. Can't exactly describe what I'm feeling, but it's a mix of joy, happiness, pride, and excitement. - Neil Armstrong Operations & Checkout (O&C) Building





tnt22

Цитата Orion Spacecraft‏ @NASA_Orion 3 ч. назад

#Artemis I Orion spacecraft is loaded onto @NASA's Super Guppy aircraft at @NASAKennedy. The spacecraft will be transported to @NASAglenn Plum Brook Station Space Power Facility for thermal-vacuum testing.




NASA's Exploration Ground Systems‏ @NASAGroundSys 2 ч. назад

The @NASA_Orion crew service module being loaded onto the Super Guppy aircraft today at @NASAKennedy.




tnt22

Цитата Orion Spacecraft‏ @NASA_Orion 7 мин. назад

.@NASA Super Guppy has arrived in Ohio, carrying Orion to @NASAglenn  Plum Brook Station for testing.


tnt22

https://www.nasa.gov/feature/glenn/2019/orion-spacecraft-arrives-in-ohio-aboard-the-super-guppy
ЦитатаNov. 25, 2019

Orion Spacecraft Arrives in Ohio Aboard the Super Guppy


Credits: NASA/Marvin Smith

Almost 1,500 people turned out Sunday, November 24 to watch NASA's Super Guppy aircraft arrive at Mansfield Lahm Airport with the Orion spacecraft for Artemis I aboard.  After viewing exhibits, the crowd gathered at the flight line to await the aircraft.


Credits: NASA/Marvin Smith

At about 4:35 p.m. EST, the Guppy, which had traveled fr om NASA's Kennedy Space Center, appeared in the eastern sky on approach.


Credits: NASA/Bridget Caswell

Once the Guppy touched down, there was a loud cheer from the crowd as it taxied to a stop for the night just as the sun began to set. 


Credits: NASA/Bridget Caswell

The nose of the Guppy was opened at sunrise on Monday, November 25 revealing the packaged Orion spacecraft inside. It has been removed from the aircraft and is loaded onto a large flatbed trailer so it can be transported to NASA's Plum Brook Station for testing.

Completed in two phases inside the world's largest vacuum chamber, testing will begin with a thermal test, which will last approximately 60 days, while Orion's systems are powered-on under vacuum conditions that simulate the space environment.

During this phase, the spacecraft will be subjected to extreme temperatures, ranging from -250 to 300-degrees Fahrenheit, to replicate flying in-and-out of sunlight and shadow in space. The second phase is an electromagnetic interference and compatibility test, lasting about 14 days. This testing will ensure the spacecraft's electronics work properly when operated at the same time.


After successful completion, the spacecraft will return to NASA's Kennedy Space Center, wh ere it will begin integration with the powerful Space Launch System rocket for the Artemis I launch.

View more images of Orion's arrival in Ohio.
Last Updated: Nov. 25, 2019
Editor: Kelly Sands


tnt22

https://www.nasa.gov/press-release/glenn/2019/orion-spacecraft-for-artemis-i-mission-arrives-at-nasa-s-plum-brook-station-for
ЦитатаNov. 26, 2019
RELEASE 19-017

Orion Spacecraft for Artemis I Mission Arrives at NASA's Plum Brook Station for Testing


The Orion spacecraft being lifted onto the truck for transport to NASA's Plum Brook Station.
Credits: NASA


The Artemis I Orion spacecraft arrived at NASA's Plum Brook Station in Sandusky, Ohio, on Tuesday, Nov. 26 for in-space environmental testing in preparation for Artemis I.

This four-month test campaign will subject the spacecraft, consisting of its crew module and European-built service module, to the vacuum, extreme temperatures and electromagnetic environment it will experience during the three-week journey around the Moon and back. The goal of testing is to confirm the spacecraft's components and systems work properly under in-space conditions, while gathering data to ensure the spacecraft is fit for all subsequent Artemis missions to the Moon and beyond.

"This is the final critical step before the spacecraft is ready to be joined with the Space Launch System rocket for this first test flight in 2020," said Dr. Marla Pérez-Davis, acting director, NASA's Glenn Research Center. "Our team at Plum Brook Station has been upgrading the Space Environments Complex to prepare for this test, and we are thrilled that it is here."

The spacecraft flew into Mansfield Lahm Airport aboard the agency's Super Guppy fr om NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida, wh ere engineers and technicians recently completed assembly and integration of the crew capsule and service module. Transportation of the spacecraft is an involved process, bringing together teams from Glenn, Kennedy, NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston, Lockheed Martin, the Ohio Air National Guard, and the following local logistics companies: RPTS Express; Diamond Heavy Haul, Inc.; and Capital City Group, Inc.

"This is an exciting day for our state, as it continues Ohio's long line of history in our nation's space exploration pursuits," said U.S. Rep. Troy Balderson. "From the Wright brothers to the first man on the Moon--Neil Armstrong--to the Orion spacecraft, Ohio leads the United States in the aerospace industry and will continue to do so in the future."

After unloading Orion at the airport, the transportation team drove the spacecraft across Northeast Ohio's new space corridor. NASA Glenn worked with the Ohio Department of Transportation and local utility companies to clear more than 700 overhead lines from the 41-mile stretch of rural highway between Mansfield and Plum Brook Station. The space corridor creates new opportunities for Ohio by enabling Plum Brook to conduct large-scale testing of agency and commercial spacecraft previously unachievable due to logistics challenges.

"This next-generation Orion spacecraft is being tested at NASA Plum Brook because of our region's world-class workforce and unrivaled experience in space exploration," said U.S. Rep. Marcy Kaptur. "NASA Plum Brook has a long and storied history at the center of America's leadership in space exploration. Congratulations to the scientists, engineers and technicians for the hard work that it took get us to this point. Today's arrival culminates years of planning, coordination and construction. This momentous occasion is an important step on the path to a future manned mission to the Moon."

Artemis I is an uncrewed test flight around the Moon, the first in a series of progressively more complex missions that will land the first woman and next man on the lunar surface by 2024. NASA will then use what it learns on the Moon to prepare to send humans to Mars.

Last Updated: Nov. 27, 2019
Editor: Kelly Sands

tnt22

Цитата Mark Kirasich‏ @MarkKirasich 26 нояб.

#Artemis I @NASA_Orion spacecraft is now at @NASAglenn Plum Brook Station where it will undergo thermal-vacuum and electromagnetic testing.


http://www.esa.int/Science_Exploration/Human_and_Robotic_Exploration/Orion/Orion_spacecraft_arrives_at_Plum_Brook
ЦитатаOrion spacecraft arrives at Plum Brook
27/11/2019

The Orion spacecraft that will fly farther fr om Earth on the Artemis I mission than any human-rated vehicle has ever flown before, arrived at NASA's Plum Brook Station yesterday. This was the first voyage of the assembled spacecraft - the size of a two-storey house - that includes NASA's Crew Module and Crew Module Adapter as well as ESA's European Service Module.

Plum Brook Station

The European Service Module arrived at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida, USA, fr om Bremen, Germany, last November where the three main parts of the spacecraft were assembled, joined and tested.

Further testing to ensure the spacecraft will withstand the extremes of spaceflight requires specialist facilities such as the world's largest thermal vacuum chamber at NASA's Plum Brook Station in Ohio, USA, wh ere Orion will get its first feel of space.

Plane


Orion unloading from Super Guppy

The voyage to Plum Brook started over the weekend wh ere Orion was carefully rotated from its vertical position and 'shrink-wrapped' for protection before being loaded into NASA's 'Super Guppy' aircraft, one of the only air transport carriers capable of hauling such a large load.

Landing at Mansfield airport in Ohio, the spacecraft was secured to the interior of the aircraft cargo hold with attachment rings.

Truck


Orion transport by truck

For the next 80 km of its journey Orion was hoisted onto a truck travelling north to Plum Brook Station. A 'space corridor' was cleared to allow the truck safe passage. Notably over 700 overhead lines were removed that would otherwise block the spacecraft's way.

A team of engineers and technicians from both sides of the Atlantic Ocean will now put the spacecraft through elements of extremes it will withstand during its uncrewed maiden flight around the Moon. They will work 24 hours a day, seven days a week to complete the intensive test programme on time.

Apply vacuum and alternate cold, heat


Orion's propulsion

"The tests that will be run over the next few months will show that the spacecraft works as planned and adheres to the strictest safety regulations for human spaceflight," explains ESA Service Module Manager for Orion, Philippe Berthe. "The European Service Module has 33 thrusters, 11 km of electrical wiring, four propellant and two pressurisation tanks that all work together to supply propulsion and everything needed to keep astronauts alive far from Earth - there is no room for error."

Orion will be subjected to temperatures at Plum Brook ranging from -115°C to 75°C in vacuum for over two months non-stop - the same temperatures it will experience in direct sunlight or in the shadow of Earth or the Moon while flying in space.

Electromagnetic compliance

Every electronic component emits an electromagnetic field that can affect the performance of other electronics - including your phone, computer and even an induction cooker. A second round of tests will check Orion's resistance to these electromagnetic disturbances over two weeks to ensure that its electronics all function properly together, while in operation.

The tests are planned to start in December and will run for four months after which Orion will return to Kennedy Space Center for final preparations before launch.


Orion at Kennedy Space Center

"This voyage and the tests are another milestone in the trip beyond the Moon, but it is especially wonderful to see the complete spacecraft on the move," says Nico Dettmann, ESA's head of development at Human and Robotic Exploration. "Out of the clean rooms and out of context, you can really marvel at the size of the spacecraft and the feat of technical engineering that created the next-generation of human exploration.

"It is a testament to the wonderful teamwork of NASA, ESA and prime contractors Airbus and Lockheed Martin who designed and built it.

"The second European Service Module that will power Artemis II, Orion's first crewed mission around the Moon, should be shipped to Kennedy Space Center in less than a year from now."

This week Ministers are convening at the Space19+ in Seville, Spain, to decide the future course of the Agency and Europe's exploration of our Solar System - including the funding for the next three service modules.