JWST – Ariane 5 ECA – Kourou ELA-3 – 31.10.2021

Автор zandr, 28.03.2018 21:09:50

« предыдущая - следующая »

0 Пользователей и 1 гость просматривают эту тему.

tnt22

https://www.nasa.gov/feature/goddard/2020/first-look-nasa-s-james-webb-space-telescope-fully-stowed
Цитата

May 14, 2020

First Look: NASA's James Webb Space Telescope Fully Stowed

NASA's James Webb Space Telescope has been successfully folded and stowed into the same configuration it will have when loaded onto an Ariane 5 rocket for launch next year.


For NASA's James Webb Space Telescope to fit into an Ariane V rocket for launch, it must fold up. This graphic shows how Webb fits into the rocket fairing with little room to spare.
Credits: ArianeSpace.com


Webb is NASA's largest and most complex space science telescope ever built. Too big for any rocket available in its fully expanded form, the entire observatory was designed to fold in on itself to achieve a much smaller configuration. Once in space, the observatory will unfold and stretch itself out in a carefully practiced series of steps before beginning to make groundbreaking observations of the cosmos.

"The James Webb Space Telescope achieved another significant milestone with the entire observatory in its launch configuration for the first time, in preparation for environmental testing," said Bill Ochs, Webb project manager for NASA Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland. "I am very proud of the entire Northrop Grumman and NASA integration and test team. This accomplishment demonstrates the outstanding dedication and diligence of the team in such trying times due to COVID-19."

The testing team's charter is to make sure every piece of hardware and every piece of software that comprise Webb will work not only individually, but as a full observatory. Now that Webb is completely assembled, technicians and engineers have seized the unique opportunity to command the entire spacecraft and carry out the various stages of movement and deployment it will perform when in space. By folding and stowing the spacecraft into the same configuration when it launches from French Guiana, the engineering team can confidently move forward with final environmental testing (acoustics and vibration). After completing the series of tests, Webb will be deployed one last time on Earth for testing prior to preparing for launch.

"While operating under augmented personal safety measures because of the novel coronavirus (COVID-19), the project continues to make good progress and achieve significant milestones in preparation for upcoming environmental testing," said Gregory L. Robinson, the Webb program director at NASA Headquarters in Washington, D.C. "Team member safety continues to be our highest priority as the project takes precautions to protect Webb's hardware and continue with integration and testing. NASA will continually assess the project's schedule and adjust decisions as the situation evolves."

The James Webb Space Telescope will be the world's premier space science observatory when it launches in 2021. Webb will solve mysteries in our solar system, look beyond to distant worlds around other stars, and probe the mysterious structures and origins of our universe and our place in it. Webb is an international program led by NASA with its partners, ESA (European Space Agency) and the Canadian Space Agency.

Header image caption: A first look at NASA's James Webb Space Telescope fully stowed into the same configuration it will have when loaded into an Ariane V rocket for launch.  The image was taken from a webcam in the clean room at Northrop Grumman, in Redondo Beach, California. With staffing restrictions in place due to COVID-19, only essential staff are allowed in the clean room.  Image credit: Northrop Grumman

By Thaddeus Cesari
NASA Goddard Space Flight Center


Last Updated: May 14, 2020
Editor: Lynn Jenner

tnt22

https://www.nasa.gov/feature/goddard/2020/tower-extension-test-a-success-for-nasa-s-james-webb-space-telescope

Цитата: undefinedTechnicians inspect a critical part of the James Webb Space Telescope known as the Deployable Tower Assembly

June 9, 2020

Tower Extension Test a Success for NASA's James Webb Space Telescope

Shown fully stowed, the James Webb Space Telescope's Deployable Tower Assembly.
Shown fully stowed, the James Webb Space Telescope's Deployable Tower Assembly that connects the upper and lower sections of the spacecraft will extend 48 inches (1.2 meters) after launch.
Credits: Northrop Grumman


To test the James Webb Space Telescope's readiness for its journey in space, technicians successfully commanded it to deploy and extend a critical part of the observatory known as the Deployable Tower Assembly.

The primary purpose of the deployable tower is to create a large gap between the upper part of the observatory that houses its iconic gold mirrors and scientific instruments, and the lower section known as the spacecraft bus which holds its comparatively warm electronics and propulsion systems. By creating a space between the two, it allows for Webb's active and passive cooling systems to bring its mirrors and sensors down to staggeringly cold temperatures required to perform optimal science.

Webb was designed to look for faint traces of infrared light, which is essentially heat energy. To detect the extremely faint heat signals of astronomical objects that are incredibly far away, the telescope itself has to be very cold and stable.

During the test, the tower was slowly extended 48 inches (1.2 meters) upward over the course of several hours, in the same maneuver it will perform once in space. Simulating the zero-gravity environment Webb will operate in, engineers employed an innovative series of pulleys, counterbalances and a special crane called a gravity-negation system that perfectly offloaded all of the effects of Earth's gravity on the observatory. Now that Webb is fully assembled, the difficulty of testing and properly simulating a zero-gravity environment has increased significantly.

"The Deployable Tower Assembly worked beautifully during the test," said Alphonso Stewart the Webb deployment systems lead for NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland. "It performed exactly as predicted, and from our expectations from previous tests before the full observatory was assembled. This was the first time that this part of Webb was tested in its flight-like configuration to the highest level of fidelity we possibly could. This test provides the opportunity to assess all interfaces and interactions between the instrument and bus sections of the observatory."

In addition to helping the observatory cool down, the Deployable Tower Assembly is also a big part of how Webb is able to pack into a much smaller size to fit inside an Ariane 5 rocket for launch. Webb is the largest space science observatory ever built, but to fit a telescope that big into a rocket, engineers had to design it to fold down into a much smaller configuration. Webb's Deployable Tower Assembly helps Webb to just barely fit inside a 17.8-foot (5.4-meter) payload fairing. Once in space, the tower will extend to give the rest of Webb's deployable parts, such as the sunshield and mirrors, the necessary amount of room needed to unpack and unfold into a fully functional infrared space observatory.

"We need to know that Webb will work the way we expect it to before we send it to space," said Stewart. "This is why we test, and when we do, we test as flight-like as possible. The way we send the commands to the spacecraft, the sequence, the individual sitting at the console, the communication that we use. We replicate all of these things to see if we are missing something, to see if there is something that needs to be changed, and to make sure that all of our planning to date has been correct."

Following augmented personal safety procedures due to COVID-19, the James Webb Space Telescope's Northrop Grumman team in California continued integration and testing work with significantly reduced on-site personnel and shifts. The NASA/Northrop Grumman team recently resumed near-full operations. NASA is evaluating potential impacts on the March 2021 launch date, and will continually assess the schedule and adjust decisions as the situation unfolds.

NASA's James Webb Space Telescope will be the world's premier space science observatory when it launches. Webb will solve mysteries in our solar system, look beyond to distant worlds around other stars, and probe the mysterious structures and origins of our universe and our place in it. Webb is an international program led by NASA with its partners, ESA (European Space Agency) and the Canadian Space Agency.


Header image caption: Technicians inspect a critical part of the James Webb Space Telescope known as the Deployable Tower Assembly after fully extending it in the same maneuver it will perform in once in space. Credit: Northrop Grumman


By Thaddeus Cesari
NASA Goddard Space Flight Center

Last Updated: June 9, 2020
Editor: Lynn Jenner

tnt22

Цитата: undefined Stephen Clark @StephenClark1 6 мин. назад

NASA's Thomas Zurbuchen says JWST will not launch in March 2021, as previously scheduled, due to delays associated with the coronavirus pandemic. Work has continued at Northrop Grumman at reduced efficiency since March.

A schedule assessment is planned for next month.

Изображение

zandr

https://nauka.tass.ru/nauka/8746251
ЦитатаЗапуск орбитального телескопа "Джеймс Уэбб" в очередной раз перенесли
МОСКВА, 17 июня. /ТАСС/. Запуск орбитального телескопа "Джеймс Уэбб" не состоится в запланированную ранее дату - 30 марта 2021 года. Испытания его компонентов сильно затормозила эпидемия коронавирусной инфекции, из-за которой персонал миссии временно сократился почти на половину. Об этом рассказал заместитель директора NASA по научным вопросам Томас Цурбухен на онлайн-заседании Совета по космическим исследованиям, пишет SpaceFlightNow.
"Мы абсолютно точно не запустим телескоп в марте", - сказал Цурбухен, отметив, что из-за COVID-19 NASA отложило некоторые наземные испытания "Джеймса Уэбба". Новую дату запуска объявят позже, однако NASA по-прежнему рассчитывает на то, что старт состоится в 2021 году с космодрома Куру во французской Гвиане.
 Скрытый текст:
Орбитальный телескоп "Джеймс Уэбб" должен заменить космическую обсерваторию "Хаббл". Его планируют вывести в точку Лагранжа L2 системы Земля-Солнце, которая находится на расстоянии примерно 1,6 млн км от Земли. Этот аппарат разрабатывают NASA, Канадское космическое агентство и Европейское космическое агентство.
Диаметр зеркала "Джеймса Уэбба" составит 6,5 метра. Каждая из 18 секций зеркала представляет собой равносторонний шестиугольник массой около 40 кг. Их изготовили из бериллия, который устойчив к сверхнизким температурам. Новый телескоп предназначен для изучения древнейших звезд и галактик Вселенной, а также поиска потенциально пригодных для жизни планет.

zandr

http://novosti-kosmonavtiki.ru/news/55452/
ЦитатаNASA определяется с источниками финансирования очередного переноса запуска обсерватории JWST
Как известно, постоянные проблемы и переносы сроков запуска космической обсерватории JWST достаточно сильно раздражают законодателей США, а, следовательно, больше всего NASA не хотелось в очередной раз просить на процесс его создания и выведения дополнительные средства. В связи с этим агентство объявило о том, что оно собирается найти необходимое финансирование в рамках существующих резервов своей программы. Здесь необходимо отметить, что ключевой особенностью процесса бюджетирования NASA является то, что они изначально выделяют изготовителям и разработчикам финансирование по уровню 50/50 (статистическая вероятность достаточности финансирования), а оставшиеся средства, которые доводят это соотношение до уровня 70/30 оставляют в качестве резерва. Следствием этого является то, что фактически у агентства всегда есть некоторый объем резервов, которые могут быть потрачены на не предвиденные обстоятельства.
Пока что остается неясным на сколько будет перенесен запуск, однако согласно последним заявлениям представителей NASA, это скорее всего будет несколько месяцев.
Сейчас предельная стоимость обсерватории определена в размере $8,8 млрд., пишет Ecoruspace.
А.Ж.

tnt22

https://www.nasa.gov/press-release/nasa-to-provide-update-on-james-webb-space-telescope


Цитата: undefinedJuly 15, 2020
MEDIA ADVISORY M20-083

NASA to Provide Update on James Webb Space Telescope


The fully assembled James Webb Space Telescope with its sunshield and unitized pallet structures that will fold up around the telescope for launch.
Credits: NASA


NASA will host a media teleconference at 4:30 p.m. EDT Thursday, July 16, to provide an update on the status of the agency's James Webb Space Telescope, the world's next premier infrared space observatory and the largest, most complex space telescope for astronomy ever built. 
 
The media teleconference audio will stream live at:
Participants in the teleconference include: 
  • Stephen Jurczyk, NASA associate administrator 
  • Thomas Zurbuchen, NASA Science Mission Directorate associate administrator 
  • Gregory Robinson, NASA Webb program director 
  • Eric Smith, NASA Webb program scientist 

...

Once deployed, Webb will help solve mysteries in our solar system and look beyond to distant worlds around other stars, as well as probe the mysterious structures and origins of our universe. Webb is an international program led by NASA with its partners ESA (European Space Agency) and the Canadian Space Agency. 

-end-

Last Updated: July 15, 2020
Editor: Sean Potter

tnt22

17.07.2020 01:27:03 #106 Последнее редактирование: 17.07.2020 01:31:12 от tnt22
ЦитатаThe Webb Telescope is Folded for Final Testing

 NASA Goddard

16 июл. 2020 г.

youtu.be/hf5ZkRE7wVc

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hf5ZkRE7wVc (1:03)

tnt22

17.07.2020 01:27:22 #107 Последнее редактирование: 17.07.2020 01:35:54 от tnt22
https://www.nasa.gov/press-release/nasa-announces-new-james-webb-space-telescope-target-launch-date

Цитата: undefinedJuly 16, 2020
RELEASE 20-072

NASA Announces New James Webb Space Telescope Target Launch Date


NASA's James Webb Space Telescope in the clean room at Northrop Grumman, Redondo Beach, California, in July 2020.
Credits: NASA/Chris Gunn


NASA now is targeting Oct. 31, 2021, for the launch of the agency's James Webb Space Telescope from French Guiana, due to impacts from the ongoing coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic, as well as technical challenges.

This decision is based on a recently completed schedule risk assessment of the remaining integration and test activities prior to launch. Previously, Webb was targeted to launch in March 2021.

"The perseverance and innovation of the entire Webb Telescope team has enabled us to work through challenging situations we could not have foreseen on our path to launch this unprecedented mission," said Thomas Zurbuchen, associate administrator for NASA's Science Mission Directorate at the agency's headquarters in Washington. "Webb is the world's most complex space observatory, and our top science priority, and we've worked hard to keep progress moving during the pandemic. The team continues to be focused on reaching milestones and arriving at the technical solutions that will see us through to this new launch date next year."

Testing of the observatory continues to go well at Northrop Grumman, the mission's main industry partner, in Redondo Beach, California, despite the challenges of the coronavirus pandemic. Prior to the pandemic's associated delays, the team made significant progress in achieving important milestones to prepare for launch in 2021.

As schedule margins grew tighter last fall, the agency planned to assess the progress of the project in April. This assessment was postponed due to the pandemic and was completed this week. The factors contributing to the decision to move the launch date include the impacts of augmented safety precautions, reduced on-site personnel, disruption to shift work, and other technical challenges. Webb will use existing program funding to stay within its $8.8 billion development cost cap.

"Based on current projections, the program expects to complete the remaining work within the new schedule without requiring additional funds," said Gregory Robinson, NASA Webb program director at the agency's headquarters. "Although efficiency has been affected and there are challenges ahead, we have retired significant risk through the achievements and good schedule performance over the past year. After resuming full operations to prepare for upcoming final observatory system-level environmental testing this summer, major progress continues towards preparing this highly complex observatory for launch."

The project team will continue to complete a final set of extremely difficult environmental tests of the full observatory before it will be shipped to the launch site in Kourou, French Guiana, situated on the northeastern coast of South America.

This week, the project successfully completed electrical testing of the observatory. The test highlighted a major milestone in preparation for the upcoming acoustics and vibration environmental tests of the full observatory that are scheduled to start in August. In addition to ongoing deployments, ground system testing of the fully integrated observatory has followed immediately afterwards. Ensuring that every element of Webb functions properly before it gets to space is critical to its success.

The design of a very large space telescope and highly sophisticated instruments was required to enable Webb to answer fundamental questions about our cosmic origins outlined in the National Academy of Sciences 2000 Decadal Survey.

"Webb is designed to build upon the incredible legacies of the Hubble and Spitzer space telescopes, by observing the infrared universe and exploring every phase of cosmic history," said Eric Smith, NASA Webb's program scientist at the agency's headquarters. "The observatory will detect light from the first generation of galaxies that formed in the early universe after the big bang and study the atmospheres of nearby exoplanets for possible signs of habitability."

youtu.be/hf5ZkRE7wVc
NASA's James Webb Space Telescope is folded and ready for its final suite of testing. The James Webb Space Telescope will be the world's premier space science observatory and will solve mysteries in our solar system, look beyond to distant worlds around other stars, and probe the mysterious structures and origins of our universe and our place in it. Webb is an international program led by NASA with its partners, ESA (European Space Agency) and the Canadian Space Agency.
Credits: NASA


Early next year, Webb will be will folded "origami-style" for shipment to the launch site and fitted compactly inside Arianespace's Ariane 5 launch vehicle fairing, which is about 16 feet (5 meters) wide. On its journey to space, Webb will be the first mission to complete an intricate and technically challenging series of deployments - a critical part of Webb's journey to its orbit about one million miles from Earth. Once in orbit, Webb will unfold its delicate five-layered sunshield until it reaches the size of a tennis court. Webb will then deploy its iconic 6.5-meter primary mirror that will detect the faint light of far-away stars and galaxies. 

Webb is NASA's next great space science observatory, which will help in solving the mysteries of our solar system, looking beyond to distant worlds around other stars, and probing the mystifying structures and origins of our universe. Webb is an international program led by NASA, along with its partners ESA (European Space Agency) and the Canadian Space Agency.

-end-

Last Updated: July 16, 2020
Editor: Sean Potter

tnt22

17.07.2020 01:32:05 #108 Последнее редактирование: 17.07.2020 01:41:24 от tnt22
https://ria.ru/20200717/1574472462.html

ЦитатаНАСА отложило запуск телескопа "Джеймс Уэбб"
01:15 17.07.2020 (обновлено: 01:16 17.07.2020)

ВАШИНГТОН, 17 июл - РИА Новости. Запуск новейшего телескопа "Джеймс Уэбб" отложен до 31 октября 2021 года из-за пандемии коронавируса и технических проблем, сообщило НАСА в четверг.

"Из-за влияния продолжающейся пандемии коронавируса и технических сложностей планируем запуск космического телескопа имени Джеймса Уэбба на 31 октября 2021 года", - сообщило ведомство. Ранее запуск планировался на март 2021 года. Решение о переносе даты старта, отмечают в НАСА, основано на завершенном недавно анализе готовности проекта и необходимой к завершению предстартовой работы.

В НАСА пояснили, что одной из причин задержки стало вызванное пандемией сокращение числа занятых на строительстве телескопа сотрудников. Несмотря на задержку, надеются в НАСА, затраты на создание орбитального телескопа не будут увеличены и не превысят утвержденных бюджетом 8,8 миллиарда долларов.

"(Телескоп) "Уэбб" - самая сложная космическая обсерватория в мире - является сегодня приоритетом нашей научной работы", - заявил в связи с переносом запуска заместитель руководителя НАСА по науке Томас Зурбухен (Thomas Zurbuchen).

Как уточнили в НАСА, сейчас, несмотря на пандемию коронавируса, в Калифорнии в цехах компании Northrop Grumman продолжаются испытания новейшего телескопа.

О том, что запуск нового телескопа состоится не раньше марта 2021 года, стало известно в 2018 году, до этого планировалось, что он будет выведен на орбиту в мае 2020 года. В связи с переносом сроков запуска надзорный совет НАСА, проводивший оценку готовности миссии, заявил тогда, что задержка обусловлена ошибками и "чрезмерным оптимизмом".

Космический телескоп "Джеймс Уэбб" создается США во взаимодействии с канадскими и европейскими космическими специалистами. Изначально его предполагалось запустить в октябре 2018 года.

tnt22

https://www.nasa.gov/feature/goddard/2020/ground-segment-testing-a-success-for-nasa-s-james-webb-space-telescope/

ЦитатаAug. 24, 2020

Ground Segment Testing a Success for NASA's James Webb Space Telescope

Testing teams have successfully completed a critical milestone focused on demonstrating that NASA's James Webb Space Telescope will respond to commands once in space. 

Known as a "Ground Segment Test," this is the first time commands to power on and test Webb's scientific instruments have been sent to the fully-assembled observatory from its Mission Operations Center at the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) in Baltimore, Maryland.

Since reliably communicating with Webb when in space is a mission-critical priority for NASA, tests like these are part of a comprehensive regimen designed to validate and ensure all components of the observatory will function in space with the complex communications networks involved in both sending commands, and downlinking scientific data. This test successfully demonstrated the complete end-to-end flow from planning the science Webb will perform to posting the scientific data to the community archive. 
   

Inside Webb's Mission Operations Center, Test Operator Jessica Hart is seen on-console at the Space Telescope Science Institute in Baltimore, Maryland monitoring test progress with social distancing protocol in place.
Credits: STSCI/Amanda Arvai


"This was the first time we have done this with both the actual Webb flight hardware and ground system. We've performed pieces of this test as the observatory was being assembled, but this is the first ever, and fully successful, end-to-end operation of the observatory and ground segment. This is a big milestone for the project, and very rewarding to see Webb working as expected," said Amanda Arvai, Deputy Division Head of Mission Operations at STScI in Maryland.

In this test, commands to sequentially turn on, move, and operate each of Webb's four scientific instruments were relayed from the Mission Operations Center. During the test, the observatory is treated as if it were a million miles away in orbit. To do this, the Flight Operations Team connected the spacecraft to the Deep Space Network, an international array of giant radio antennas that NASA uses to communicate with many spacecraft. However, since Webb isn't in space yet, special equipment was used to emulate the real radio link that will exist between Webb and the Deep Space Network when Webb is in orbit. Commands were then relayed through the Deep Space Network emulator to the observatory, which is currently inside a Northrop Grumman clean room in Redondo Beach, California.


Now that the observatory has been completely assembled, Webb teams are running full observatory level tests to ensure it is prepared for the rigors of liftoff.
Credits: Northrop Grumman


"This was also the first time we've demonstrated the complete cycle for conducting observations with the observatory's science instruments. This cycle starts with the creation of an observation plan by the ground system which is uplinked to the observatory by the Flight Operations Team. Webb's science instruments then performed the observations and the data was transmitted back to the Mission Operations Center in Baltimore, where the science was processed and distributed to scientists," said Arvai.

When Webb is in space, commands will flow from STScI in Baltimore to one of the three Deep Space Network locations --California, Spain, or Australia. Signals will then be sent to the orbiting observatory nearly one million miles away. Additionally the NASA's Tracking and Data Relay Satellite network, the Space Network in New Mexico, the European Space Agency's Malindi station in Kenya, and European Space Operations Centre in Germany will also aid in keeping a constant line of communication open with Webb at all times.

To complete the ground segment test a team of nearly 100 people worked together through the course of four consecutive days. Due to staffing restrictions in place due to the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic, only seven individuals were present inside the Mission Operations Center, with the rest working remotely to routinely monitor progress. Next up for Webb: observatory level acoustic and sine-vibration testing that will demonstrate that the assembled telescope is capable of surviving the rigors of launch by exposing it to similar conditions. 

Webb is NASA's next great space science observatory, which will help in solving the mysteries of our solar system, looking beyond to distant worlds around other stars, and probing the mystifying structures and origins of our universe. Webb is an international program led by NASA, along with its partners ESA (European Space Agency) and the Canadian Space Agency.

For more information about Webb, go to: https://www.nasa.gov/webb


By Thaddeus Cesari
NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center

Last Updated: Aug. 24, 2020
Editor: Lynn Jenner

tnt22

https://nauka.tass.ru/nauka/9282261

Цитата25 АВГ, 12:17
Научные инструменты телескопа "Джеймс Уэбб" прошли полную проверку

ТАСС, 25 августа. Специалисты NASA завершили первый полный цикл наземных испытаний научных инструментов орбитальной обсерватории "Джеймс Уэбб". Тесты подтвердили их работоспособность, пишет Центр космических полетов NASA имени Годдарда (GSFC).

"Мы впервые воспользовались бортовыми системами "Джеймса Уэбба" и связанной с ним наземной инфраструктурой для того, чтобы отправлять на аппарат команды и получать от него данные. Во время сборки обсерватории мы уже испытывали некоторые приборы, а теперь мы впервые показали, что штатно работают все системы в целом", - рассказала Аманда Арвай, руководитель отдела космических операций в Институте космического телескопа (США).

Во время этих испытаний специалисты NASA отправили на телескоп набор команд, которые включили все четыре научных инструмента "Джеймса Уэбба" и заставили их решить несколько простых задач. Похожие задачи телескоп будет выполнять после того, как выйдет на орбиту, в точку Лагранжа L2, где притяжение Земли и Солнца уравновешивает друг друга.

В ближайшее время, как отметили специалисты NASA, должна начаться новая серия вибрационных и акустических тестов. Они покажут, сможет ли "Джеймс Уэбб" пережить нагрузки во время старта ракеты и его вывода на орбиту.

Строящийся телескоп "Джеймс Уэбб" (James Webb Space Telescope, JWST) должен заменить орбитальную обсерваторию "Хаббл", которая проработала на орбите уже более 30 лет. Диаметр зеркала "Джеймса Уэбба" - 6,5 м, кроме того, он будет оснащен более современными научными инструментами, благодаря которым телескоп впервые сможет получить детальные фотографии экзопланет.

Изначально руководство NASA планировало запустить новый аппарат в 2014 году. Однако перерасход средств и некоторые технические сложности несколько раз вынуждали руководство миссии переносить сроки его вывода в космос. В середине июля представители космического агентства вновь перенесли запуск с марта на октябрь 2021 года. На этот раз это было связано не только с техническими проблемами, но и с пандемией коронавирусной инфекции.

tnt22

ЦитатаThe James Webb Space Telescope Completes its Final Environmental Tests

 NASA Goddard

6 окт. 2020 г.

The fully assembled James Webb Space Telescope has completed its environmental tests at Northrop Grumman in Redondo Beach, CA. The environmental tests are a combination of acoustic and sine vibration tests. These tests simulate the conditions the telescope will encounter during launch. Completing these tests ensures that the telescope will survive launch. Prior to testing, engineers lifted the telescope onto the transport fixture and covered the telescope with a protective tent cover, sometimes referred to as the clamshell cover. The tent cover keep the telescope safe from contamination particles while it was being moved to the testing area. Next up for Webb, engineers will conduct the final sunshield deployment tests.

youtu.be/QbyKJlmOQbY

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QbyKJlmOQbY (0:57)

tnt22

https://www.nasa.gov/feature/goddard/2020/nasa-s-james-webb-space-telescope-completes-environmental-testing

ЦитатаWebb Telescope
Technicians prepare the James Webb Space Telescope for transport to nearby testing facilities.

Oct. 6, 2020

NASA's James Webb Space Telescope Completes Environmental Testing

Teams lifted JWST for the first time to prepare it for transport.
For the first time ever, testing teams at Northrop Grumman in Redondo Beach, California carefully lifted the fully assembled James Webb Space Telescope in order to prepare it for transport to nearby acoustic and sine-vibration testing facilities.
Credits: NASA/Chris Gunn


With the completion of its latest series of milestone tests, NASA's James Webb Space Telescope has now survived all of the harsh conditions associated with a rocket launch to space. 

Webb's recent tests have validated that the fully assembled observatory will endure the deafening noise, and the jarring shakes, rattles and vibrations that the observatory will experience during liftoff. Known as "acoustic" and "sine-vibration" testing, NASA has worked carefully with its international partners to match Webb's testing environment precisely to what Webb will experience both on launch day, and when operating in orbit.

Though each component of the telescope has been rigorously tested during development, demonstrating that the assembled flight hardware is able to safely pass through a simulated launch environment is a significant achievement for the mission. Completed in two separate facilities within Northrop Grumman's Space Park in Redondo Beach, California, these tests represent Webb's final two, in a long series of environmental tests before Webb is shipped to French Guiana for launch.

The next environment Webb will experience is space. 

"The successful completion of our observatory environmental tests represent a monumental milestone in the march to launch.  Environmental testing demonstrates Webb's ability to survive the rocket ride to space, which is the most violent portion of its trip to orbit approximately a million miles from earth. The multinational group of individuals responsible for the execution of the acoustic and vibration test is composed of an outstanding and dedicated group of folks who are typical of the entire Webb team," said Bill Ochs, Webb project manager for NASA Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland.

Testing began by first encapsulating the entire telescope in a mobile clean room built to shield it from the outside world. Technicians then carefully guided it to a nearby acoustic testing chamber where it was intentionally blasted by sound pressure levels above 140 decibels, with a spectrum tuned to the specific signature of the Ariane 5 rocket it will ride to space. During the tests nearly 600 individual channels of motion data were carefully observed and recorded. Typical acoustic and vibration tests measure approximately 100 channels of data, but the complex size and shape of the observatory required considerably more measurement to ensure success. The data was then thoroughly analyzed and marked as a complete success.                                               

Upon successful completion of its final acoustics tests, Webb was again packed and transported to a separate facility to simulate the low frequency vibrations that occur during liftoff. While inside Webb was placed on a specialized shaker table capable of precise vertical and horizontal acceleration. Where acoustic testing simulates the high-frequency dynamics of launch, vibration testing covers the lower frequencies experienced. With the combination of the two the entire mechanical environment Webb will experience during launch is accounted for.                               

youtu.be/QbyKJlmOQbY

To safely move the James Webb Space Telescope between testing facilities, engineers enclose it within a special mobile clean room often referred to as a clamshell. The crawl between buildings can take hours and requires the raising of telephone lines to allow Webb to pass underneath. Webb's recent tests have validated that the fully assembled observatory will endure the deafening noise, and the jarring shakes, rattles and vibrations that the observatory will endure during liftoff. Known as "acoustic" and "sine-vibration" testing, NASA has worked carefully with its international partners to match Webb's testing environment precisely to what Webb will experience both on launch day, and when operating in orbit.
Credits: NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center

"The testing team is an international consortium of structural dynamics experts who are the lead engineers for each piece of hardware on the observatory. The team members are located throughout the USA and Europe, spanning across 9 time zones! They are extremely dedicated to support testing at all hours and days to provide their expertise," said Sandra Irish, Webb Mechanical Systems Structures Engineer Lead for NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland. "Through the team's dedication, hard work, and just pure excitement in being a part of this complex test, it was a complete success! I have known these individuals for many years and it's been an honor to work with each one of them." 

Webb is now scheduled to move forward into the last full extension of its iconic primary mirror and sunshield followed by a full systems evaluation before being encapsulated in a specialized shipping container for transport to South America. Deploying the observatory after experiencing a simulated launch environment is the best way to replicate the true series of events the observatory will experience during launch, and when performing its complex deployment sequence in space. Initial analysis suggests the observatory passed through observatory level acoustic and vibration testing successfully, but the full verification of flight worthiness will occur after Webb has successfully completed final deployment tests.

Engineers and technicians continue to follow augmented personal safety procedures due to the COVID-19 situation, which is causing significant impact and disruption globally. The team has resumed near-full operations and are now preparing for the final phase of testing prior to shipment to the launch site.

The James Webb Space Telescope is the world's largest, most powerful, and complex space science telescope ever built. In addition to the groundbreaking science expected from it after launch, Webb has required an improvement in the testing infrastructure and processes involved in validating large complex spacecraft for a life in space. Various facilities around the country had to be enlarged and upgraded to confidently test and prepare a machine as large as Webb for liftoff. Lessons learned from previous space telescope development were invested into Webb, and future space telescopes will be built upon the same collective knowledge. Thousands of scientists, engineers, and technicians contributed to build, test, and integrate Webb. In total, 258 companies, agencies, and universities participated - 142 from the United States, 104 from 12 European nations, and 12 from Canada.

Webb is NASA's next great space science observatory, which will help in solving the mysteries of our solar system, looking beyond to distant worlds around other stars, and probing the mystifying structures and origins of our universe. Webb is an international program led by NASA, along with its partners ESA (European Space Agency) and the Canadian Space Agency.

Header caption: For the first time ever, testing teams at Northrop Grumman in Redondo Beach, California carefully lifted the fully assembled James Webb Space Telescope in order to prepare it for transport to nearby acoustic and sine-vibration testing facilities. Image credit NASA/Chris Gunn

By Thaddeus Cesari 
NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center


Last Updated: Oct. 6, 2020
Editor: Lynn Jenner

zandr

https://nplus1.ru/news/2020/12/21/james-webb-final-sunshied?utm_source=yxnews&utm_medium=desktop
ЦитатаТеплозащитный экран «Джеймса Уэбба» прошел заключительные испытания

NASA / Chris Gunn
Теплозащитный экран космического телескопа «Джеймс Уэбб» успешно прошел последний тест на развертывание. Теперь обсерватории осталось пройти еще несколько финальных испытаний, после чего ее отправят на космодром для подготовки к запуску в космос, намеченного на осень следующего года, сообщается на сайте NASA.
 Скрытый текст:
Первоначально запуск в космос «Джеймса Уэбба», который станет одной из важнейших орбитальных обсерваторий на ближайшие десять лет, был намечен на 2007 год, однако из-за большой сложности и масштабности проекта дата пуска несколько раз переносилась, а сборка телескопа была закончена лишь в середине 2019 года. После этого обсерватория начала проходить длительную программу испытаний, включавшую в себя проверку систем связи, процессов развертывания защитного экрана, главного зеркала телескопа и всей обсерватории в целом, а также комплексные испытания.
18 декабря 2020 года NASA объявило, что заключительная проверка на развертывание теплозащитного экрана обсерватории прошла успешно. Экран необходим для нормальной работы «Джеймса Уэбба» в космосе, так как оберегает главное зеркало и научное оборудование от перегрева. Он состоит из пяти тонких слоев каптона, покрытых алюминием, причем первые два слоя покрыты еще легированным кремнием. Сами слои укреплены на выдвижных стрелах.
В ходе испытаний специалисты проверяли развертывание каждого из слоев поочередно, в условиях, имитирующих невесомость. В ближайшие два месяца обсерваторию ждут еще несколько финальных проверок, после чего ее подготовят для отправки на космодром летом 2021 года. В настоящее время запуск «Джеймса Уэбба» намечен на 31 октября 2021 года, после чего ему предстоит совершить перелет к окрестности второй точки Лагранжа в системе Солнце -- Земля, где он будет работать около 5-10 лет.
Узнать о том, как устроен телескоп «Джеймс Уэбб» и что астрономы надеются открыть с его помощью, можно из нашего материала «Что увидит сменщик "Хаббла"» .
Александр Войтюк

zandr

https://tass.ru/kosmos/10813949
ЦитатаОрбитальный телескоп James Webb прошел все предполетные проверки
ТАСС, 2 марта. Специалисты NASA и компании Northrop Grumman завершили все предполетные температурные, вибрационные и электронные испытания орбитального телескопа James Webb. Запустить на орбиту Земли его планируют в октябре 2021 года. Об этом NASA пишет на своем сайте.
В феврале James Webb прошел последний цикл наземных тестов, который показал, что электронные компоненты обсерватории будут корректно работать после нагрузок во время запуска и вывода в космос.
Эти тесты подтвердили, что все четыре научных инструмента James Webb и сам космический аппарат могли корректно функционировать и обмениваться сигналами с наземными радиоприемниками. Полный цикл вибрационных и температурных испытаний телескоп прошел в 2020 году. Они подтвердили полную работоспособность обсерватории в космических условиях.
 Скрытый текст:
Космический телескоп James Webb (James Webb Space Telescope, JWST) должен заменить орбитальную обсерваторию "Хаббл", которая работает на орбите уже 31-й год. Зеркало JWST будет составным, его диаметр - 6,5 м. Кроме того, на телескопе установлен более современный набор научных инструментов, благодаря которым, как надеются ученые, он впервые сможет детально сфотографировать экзопланеты.
Руководство NASA планировало запустить James Webb в 2014 году, однако перерасход средств и некоторые технические сложности несколько раз вынуждали переносить сроки его вывода в космос. В середине июля прошлого года запуск перенесли в очередной раз: с марта на октябрь 2021 года. Это было связано не только с техническими проблемами, но и с пандемией коронавирусной инфекции.

zandr

https://www.nasa.gov/feature/goddard/2021/nasa-s-james-webb-space-telescope-completes-final-functional-tests-to-prepare-for-launch
ЦитатаNASA's James Webb Space Telescope Completes Final Functional Tests to Prepare for Launch

February marked significant progress for NASA's James Webb Space Telescope, which completed its final functional performance tests at Northrop Grumman in Redondo Beach, California. Testing teams successfully completed two important milestones that confirmed the observatory's internal electronics are all functioning as intended, and that the spacecraft and its four scientific instruments can send and receive data properly through the same network they will use in space. These milestones move Webb closer to being ready to launch in October.

These tests are known as the comprehensive systems test, which took place at Northrop Grumman, and the ground segment test, which took place in collaboration with the Space Telescope Science Institute in Baltimore.
Before the launch environment test, technicians ran a full scan known as a comprehensive systems test. This assessment established a baseline of electrical functional performance for the entire observatory, and all of the many components that work together to comprise the world's premiere space science telescope. Once environmental testing concluded, technicians and engineers moved forward to run another comprehensive systems test and compared the data between the two. After thoroughly examining the data, the team confirmed that the observatory will both mechanically and electronically survive the rigors of launch.[/size
Technicians powering on all of Webb's electrical components
During its final full systems test, technicians powered on all of the James Webb Space Telescope's various electrical components installed on the observatory, and cycled through their planned operations to ensure each was functioning, and communicating with each other.
Credits: NASA/Chris Gunn
 
 Скрытый текст:
Through the course of 17 consecutive days of systems testing, technicians powered on all of Webb's various electrical components and cycled through their planned operations to ensure each was functioning and communicating with each other. All electrical boxes inside the telescope have an "A" and "B" side, which allows redundancy in flight and added flexibility. During the test all commands were input correctly, all telemetry received was correct and all electrical boxes, and each backup side functioned as designed.

"It's been amazing to witness the level of expertise, commitment and collaboration across the team during this important milestone," said Jennifer Love-Pruitt, Northrop Grumman's electrical vehicle engineering lead on the Webb observatory. "It's definitely a proud moment because we demonstrated Webb's electrical readiness. The successful completion of this test also means we are ready to move forward toward launch and on-orbit operations."

Webb's recent systems scan confirms the observatory will withstand the launch environment.

Following the completion of Webb's final comprehensive systems evaluation, technicians immediately began preparations for its next big milestone, known as a ground segment test. This test was designed to simulate the complete process from planning science observations to posting the scientific data to the community archive.   

Webb's final ground segment test began by first creating a simulated plan that each of its scientific instruments would follow. Commands to sequentially turn on, move, and operate each of four scientific instruments were then relayed from Webb's Mission Operations Center (MOC) at the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) in Baltimore. During the test, the observatory is treated as if it were a million miles away in orbit. To do this, the Flight Operations Team connected the spacecraft to the Deep Space Network, an international array of giant radio antennas that NASA uses to communicate with many spacecraft. However, since Webb isn't in space yet, special equipment was used to emulate the real radio link that will exist between Webb and the Deep Space Network when Webb is in orbit. Commands were then relayed through the Deep Space Network emulator to the observatory at Northrop Grumman.

One of the unique aspects of Webb's final ground segment test occurred during a simulated flight environment when the team successfully practiced seamlessly switching over control from its primary MOC at STScI in Baltimore to the backup MOC at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland. This demonstrated a backup plan that isn't anticipated to be needed but is necessary to practice and perfect prior to launch. Additionally, team members successfully sent multiple software patches to the observatory while it was performing its commanded operations. 

"Working in a pandemic environment, of course, is a challenge, and our team has been doing an excellent job working through its nuances. That's a real positive to highlight, and it's not just for this test but all of the tests we've safely completed leading up to this one," said Bonnie Seaton, deputy ground segment & operations manager at Goddard. "This recent success is attributable to many months of preparation, the maturity of our systems, procedures, and products and the proficiency of our team."

When Webb is in space, commands will flow from STScI to one of the three Deep Space Network locations: Goldstone, California; Madrid, Spain; or Canberra, Australia. Signals will then be sent to the orbiting observatory nearly one million miles away. Additionally, NASA's Tracking and Data Relay Satellite network - the Space Network in New Mexico, the European Space Agency's Malindi station in Kenya, and European Space Operations Centre in Germany - will help keep a constant line of communication open with Webb.

Engineers and technicians continue to follow personal safety procedures in accordance with current CDC and Occupational Safety and Health Administration guidance related to COVID-19, including mask wearing and social distancing. The team is now preparing for the next series of technical milestones, which will include the final folding of the sunshield and deployment of the mirror, prior to shipment to the launch site.

The next series of milestones for Webb include a final sunshield fold and a final mirror deployment.

The James Webb Space Telescope will be the world's premier space science observatory when it launches in 2021. Webb will solve mysteries in our solar system, look beyond to distant worlds around other stars, and probe the mysterious structures and origins of our universe and our place in it. Webb is an international program led by NASA with its partners, ESA (European Space Agency) and the Canadian Space Agency.

Caption for the header: Following the conclusion of the James Webb Space Telescope's recent milestone tests, engineering teams have confirmed that the observatory will both mechanically, and electronically survive the rigors anticipated during launch. Credit: NASA/Chris Gunn

zandr

ЦитатаNASA  @NASA
Sunshield folding complete!
Engineers finished carefully packing the tennis-court-sized structure that will protect our @NASAWebb telescope's optics. The sunshield will be stowed inside the rocket when the mission launches, and unfold in space: https://go.nasa.gov/3rXfiGI
James Webb Space Telescope in facility with primary mirror deployed and sunshield folded

Space books

https://naked-science.ru/article/astronomy/astronomy-predskazali-obnaruzhenie-vnezemnoj-zhizni-v-techenie-blizhajshih-5-10-let


ЦитатаАстрономы предсказали обнаружение внеземной жизни в течение ближайших 5-10 лет
 
Уже этой осенью в путешествие отправится крупнейший из созданных человеком космических телескопов -- JWST. Он не только сменит на «посту» стремительно устаревающего «Хаббла», но и существенно раздвинет границы нашего понимания Вселенной. Американские астрономы с помощью моделирования показали, насколько быстро этот научный инструмент сможет обнаружить биосигнатуры в атмосферах планет у других звезд.
 
Астрономы предсказали обнаружение внеземной жизни в течение ближайших 5-10 лет
JWST в чистой комнате Northrop Grumman. В феврале телескоп начали готовить к отправке во Французскую Гвиану, где ему предстоит занять свое место под обтекателем ракеты-носителя Ariane 5. Запуск предварительно назначен на 31 октября ©Chris Gunn, NASA
Научная работа с описанием этих расчетов будет представлена на следующей неделе, в рамках Апрельской встречи Американского физического общества (APS). Текст статьи пока не опубликован, но доступно краткое содержание доклада, который проведет аспирантка Университета штата Огайо Каприс Филлипс (Caprice Phillips). Она же выступила ведущим автором работы.
По подсчетам Филлипс, чтобы провести наблюдения достаточной точности, космическому телескопу Джеймса Уэбба (JWST) потребуется десять орбит. Учитывая, что его планируемая гало-орбита вокруг точки Лагранжа L2 системы Солнце-Земля имеет период около шести месяцев, получается срок в пять лет. Но за столь ограниченным числом объектов такому важному инструменту никто не даст спокойно наблюдать, поэтому время сбора необходимых данных можно смело увеличивать вдвое.
Чтобы проверить, как долго человечеству осталось до обнаружения признаков жизни в других звездных системах, Филлипс использовала моделирование. С помощью специального набора программного обеспечения она симулировала наблюдение семи мини-нептунов (газовых карликов, gas dwarf planets) тремя спектрометрами JWST. В модели учитывали самые разные тонкости: облачность планет, содержание искомых газов в атмосферах объектов изучения и особенности их смешивания, а также относительную молекулярную массу биомаркеров.
Целью поиска телескопа назван аммиак, поскольку он считается наиболее вероятным потенциальным признаком жизни. А мини-нептуны взяли в качестве удобного примера планет, в атмосферах которых, по представлению астрономов, возможна примитивная жизнь. При этом они отсутствуют в Солнечной системе, так что их наблюдения принесут много новых данных. Наконец, это едва ли не самый малый класс планет около других звезд, которые можно различить оптическим телескопом, пусть даже и таким мощным, как JWST.
Со стороны может показаться, что такие статьи сильно напоминают «дележ шкуры еще не убитого медведя»: астрономы пытаются предугадать, что же они смогут увидеть еще не запущенным аппаратом. Но на деле подобные работы важны для планирования программы исследований. Доступное время наблюдений наземных телескопов расписано на годы вперед, что уж говорить об уникальных космических научных инструментах. Поэтому, чтобы попасть в список счастливчиков, которые получают именно им нужные данные, ценность этих наблюдений желательно обосновать заранее.
Да и рассчитывать, что каждый космический аппарат прослужит так же долго, как «Хаббл», -- опрометчиво. Тем более что «Джеймс Уэбб» имеет конструктивные особенности, сильно ограничивающие его максимальный срок эксплуатации. Телескоп расположится на неустойчивой гало-орбите вокруг точки Лагранжа L2 системы Земля-Солнце, в полутора миллионах километров от планеты. Чтобы ее поддерживать, ему придется регулярно включать двигатели коррекции. К тому же для повышения разрешающей способности инфракрасных спектрометров их нужно охлаждать до температуры, которая всего на шесть градусов выше абсолютного нуля, сжиженным гелием. А его запасы не бесконечны.