InSight, новая марсианская миссия -- 05.05.2018

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tnt22

https://spacenews.com/insight-mole-making-slow-progress-into-martian-surface/
ЦитатаInSight mole making slow progress into Martian surface
by Jeff Foust -- May 5, 2020


Recent images from NASA's InSight Mars lander show the lander's robotic arm, with a scoop at the end, pushing down on top of the mole as it attempts to burrow into the surface. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech

WASHINGTON -- An instrument on NASA's InSight Mars lander that has struggled for more than a year to make its way into the Martian surface is now making steady, but slow progress with the help of the lander's robotic arm.

The Heat Flow and Physical Properties Package instrument on the InSight lander was to deploy a probe, or "mole," into the surface of the planet, using a hammering mechanism to burrow as deep as five meters below the surface to measure the heat flow from the planet's interior. The probe, though, got stuck shortly after it started burrowing in February 2019, getting no deeper than about 30 centimeters.

The project has tried several ways to get the mole moving into the surface again. Most recently, spacecraft controllers positioned the scoop on the end of the lander's robotic arm on top of the mole, pushing down on it to help it move into the surface and to prevent it from moving back out, which has happened in the past.

That approach is working so far. "The mole is going down by its hammering mechanism, but it is aided by the push of the scoop that balances the force of the recoil," said Tilman Spohn, principal investigator for the instrument at the German space agency DLR, during a May 4 webinar about results from the mission that was part of the European Geosciences Union General Assembly, a conference that moved online because of the coronavirus pandemic.

However, the progress is slow because of the need to reposition the arm as the mole gets deeper. "That is a very tedious operation," he said. "We can only go like 1.5 centimeters at a time before we have to readjust."

Another issue is the angle at which the mole is penetrating into the surface. The mole was originally designed to go down vertically, but is now at an angle of nearly 30 degrees from the vertical. "It's not something we like to see," he said. If the mole is able to get completely below the surface, he expects that it will "rectify itself to some extent."

The problems have given scientists some insight into the properties of the surface at InSight's landing site. There is a "duricrust" about 20 centimeters thick, which he described as sand that has been cemented into place by salt. That duricrust didn't provide enough friction to keep the mole from recoiling as it tried to hammer into the surface initially.

Another issue, he said, is that there is now a region of compacted sand created by the mole as it hammered in place without moving deeper. That will make it more difficult for the mole to penetrate into the surface, even with the assistance of the robotic arm.

While Spohn didn't state how long the current effort to get the mole into the Martian surface would last, other project officials have suggested it may take a couple months. The latest effort had just started when Bruce Banerdt, principal investigator for the overall mission, gave a briefing at a meeting of NASA's Mars Exploration Program Analysis Group April 17, noting that the lander's other instruments, including its seismometer, were working well.

"We anticipate that we'll have the mole down flush with the ground within another month or two months," he said. By then, the arm will no longer be able to help push the mole further into the ground. "At that point, it's either going to be able to go on its own or not."

tnt22

https://www.dlr.de/blogs/en/all-blog-posts/The-InSight-mission-logbook.aspx


Цитата: undefined03. June 2020 | posted by Tilman Spohn

The InSight mission logbook

 
Credit: DLR (CC-BY 3.0)
You can find more graphics explaining the instruments of the InSight mission on flickr


In his log­book, In­stru­ment Lead Tilman Spohn who is back in Berlin since April and com­mu­ni­cat­ing with JPL via the web, gives us the lat­est up­dates re­gard­ing the In­Sight mis­sion and our HP3 in­stru­ment - the 'Mole' - which will ham­mer into the Mar­t­ian sur­face.

Log­book entry 3 June 2020

More than three months have passed since my last blog post, when I had to re­port that the 'Mole' had un­for­tu­nately backed out again. Not as much as in Oc­to­ber, but nev­er­the­less, after going 1.5 cen­time­tres into the sur­face, it re­versed di­rec­tion and backed out by 1.5 plus 3.5 cen­time­tres, with the back cap end­ing a total of ap­prox­i­mately five cen­time­tres above the deep­est po­si­tion reached at the time and about seven cen­time­tres above the sur­face. I de­scribed the sit­u­a­tion in more de­tail in my pre­vi­ous post, in which I also de­tailed how the team at­tempted to ex­plain the down­ward and then up­ward mo­tion dur­ing one sin­gle ham­mer­ing ses­sion (we had not seen this be­fore).

As a con­se­quence of the lack of suc­cess with the last at­tempt at pin­ning, the team de­cided to adopt an al­ter­na­tive strat­egy and try the 'back-cap push' tech­nique in­stead. For this, the scoop is placed above the back cap and slowly low­ered until it touches the cap. The arm is then fur­ther low­ered and ten­sioned such that the scoop presses on the Mole with a force of about 50 new­tons. When the Mole de­scends into the sur­face, the scoop fol­lows its down­ward mo­tion, but the load de­creases as the Mole pro­gresses. After ap­prox­i­mately 1.5 cen­time­tres, the push­ing force re­duces to zero and the push ac­tion has to be re­newed.

 
Credit: DLR

Be­cause of the ori­en­ta­tion of the Mole in the pit and the lim­ited reach of the arm, the scoop touches the back cap close to its edge at more or less a sin­gle point. The image below shows the sit­u­a­tion as sim­u­lated in a lab­o­ra­tory at DLR. This sim­u­la­tion was done to as­sess how crit­i­cal the place­ment was for the tether. As can be seen, an error in place­ment of just a few mil­lime­tres could have ei­ther caused the scoop to slip off the back cap or to dam­age the tether. In ad­di­tion, as the Mole moves down, the scoop moves to the left rel­a­tive to the Mole and to­wards the tether.

There­fore, the team pro­ceeded very care­fully. After each place­ment, the sit­u­a­tion was checked through imag­ing and record­ings of arm motor cur­rent data be­fore a num­ber of ham­mer strokes were com­manded. We started the pro­ce­dure with only a few (25) ham­mer strokes. Only after the team had gained some con­fi­dence in its abil­ity to care­fully place the scoop and in the rate of progress of the Mole did we in­crease the num­ber of ham­mer strokes per ses­sion to, in the end, 150 strokes per ses­sion.

As I had re­ported in an ear­lier post, the pre­sent mode of op­er­a­tion of the In­Sight mis­sion al­lows only one cycle of op­er­a­tions per week. (Re­mem­ber, we are in a phase of the mis­sion when the in­stru­ments should be 'mon­i­tor­ing' rather than 'de­ploy­ing'. In the de­ploy­ment phase in early 2019, com­mand­ing was suc­cess ori­ented - that is, as needed. In the mon­i­tor­ing phase, we have far fewer team mem­bers; most have other pro­ject com­mit­ments.) Thus, place­ment of the scoop oc­curred only every other week (mostly on Sat­ur­days), fol­lowed by what space en­gi­neers call a 'ground-in-the-loop', that is a check­ing of the place­ment of the scoop on Mon­days to give the go-ahead for the next ham­mer­ing, usu­ally on the fol­low­ing Sat­ur­day.

We started about seven cen­time­tres above the sur­face on Sol 458 (11 March) and we are now at the sur­face with the scoop on Sol 536 (30 May 30), after six cy­cles of ham­mer­ing over 11 weeks. The movie below shows the en­tire his­tory of pen­e­tra­tion through back-cap push­ing.

 
Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech

It is pos­si­ble that the ham­mer­ing stopped when the left edge of the scoop was still one mil­lime­tre or so above the sur­face. Also, the scoop is ob­vi­ously at an angle with re­spect to the re­golith sur­face, such that the right edge of the scoop may still be a cen­time­tre or so above the sur­face. In ad­di­tion, we know that the sur­face is cov­ered with about one cen­time­tre of rel­a­tively loose sand that the scoop may com­press.

There­fore, the next step will be an­other ham­mer­ing with the scoop push­ing on the back-cap. Dur­ing that ham­mer­ing, we ex­pect the scoop to be stopped by the re­golith (if it has not been stopped al­ready at the end of the Sol 536 ham­mer­ing) and we can see whether the Mole is able to dig on its own. We call this the 'free-Mole' test.

Clearly, the Mole was not stopped by a stone as has been sug­gested

You may re­call that our lead­ing the­ory was that the Mole did not move into the sub­sur­face be­cause the re­golith did not pro­vide enough fric­tion to bal­ance the re­coil force of the Mole. Al­though this force is much smaller than the force that dri­ves the Mole for­ward (five to seven new­tons as com­pared to 900 new­tons) it still needs to be pro­vided by the over­bur­den pres­sure. Cal­cu­la­tions that I had dis­cussed ear­lier in this blog sug­gest that the fric­tion force will suf­fice if the Mole is fully buried. Some ad­di­tional fric­tion can be pro­vided if we use the arm to load the sur­face, which we will do.

Should the Mole move into the sub­sur­face on its own (al­beit being helped some­what by the re­golith push), fric­tion will in­crease and im­prove the sit­u­a­tion as the Mole moves deeper. When the Mole back cap is at a depth of ap­prox­i­mately 20 cen­time­tres, load­ing the sur­face will have be­come in­ef­fec­tive and the re­golith push should no longer be nec­es­sary. We will then do what we planned to do more than a year ago - com­mand the Mole to ham­mer to depth.

So, you see, the next step, the free Mole test, will be very ex­cit­ing. But what if the Mole is just not deep enough in for suf­fi­cient fric­tion? We then have two op­tions, ei­ther fill the pit to pro­vide more fric­tion and push on the re­golith, or use the scoop to push at the back-cap again, but this time with its tip rather than with its flat bot­tom sur­face. This would be a some­what more dif­fi­cult op­er­a­tion but doable, as the In­stru­ment De­ploy­ment Arm (IDA) team thinks.

In ad­di­tion, win­ter is ap­proach­ing on Mars' north­ern hemi­sphere and dust storm sea­son will begin soon. The at­mos­phere is al­ready get­ting dustier and the power gen­er­ated by the solar pan­els is de­creas­ing. This may af­fect our abil­ity to per­form­ing en­ergy con­sum­ing op­er­a­tions with the arm in the near fu­ture. Stay tuned and keep your fin­gers crossed.

And, is it not won­der­ful how peo­ple can work to­gether from home across large dis­tances on Earth and to Mars? Thank you very much team!

Старый

До уровня поверхности запихали. Дальше поехал сам? Назад не вылез?
1. Ангара - единственный в истории мировой космонавтики случай когда новая ракета по всем параметрам хуже старой. (с) Старый Ламер
2. Всё что связано с Ангарой подчинено единственной задаче - выкачать из бюджета и распилить как можно больше денег.
3. Чем мрачнее реальность тем ярче бред.

testest

Цитата: Старый от 04.06.2020 23:31:15До уровня поверхности запихали. Дальше поехал сам? Назад не вылез?
Не поехал еще. Они только готовятся провести пробное включение, чтобы понять - сможет он погружаться самостоятельно или нет. Если нет, то этот ужас закончится.

Старый

1. Ангара - единственный в истории мировой космонавтики случай когда новая ракета по всем параметрам хуже старой. (с) Старый Ламер
2. Всё что связано с Ангарой подчинено единственной задаче - выкачать из бюджета и распилить как можно больше денег.
3. Чем мрачнее реальность тем ярче бред.

Alex_II

Цитата: testest от 05.06.2020 00:15:03Если нет, то этот ужас закончится.
Если сможет - тоже закончится, это уже будет штатная работа... Будем посмотреть.
И мы пошли за так, на четвертак, за ради бога
В обход и напролом и просто пылью по лучу...

opinion

Цитата: testest от 05.06.2020 00:15:03
Цитата: Старый от 04.06.2020 23:31:15До уровня поверхности запихали. Дальше поехал сам? Назад не вылез?
Не поехал еще. Они только готовятся провести пробное включение, чтобы понять - сможет он погружаться самостоятельно или нет. Если нет, то этот ужас закончится.
Не закончится. Написано, что ещё есть пара вариантов, как затолкать поглубже.
И написано, что из-за того, что миссия в стадии наблюдений, а не развертывания, они могут работать с аппаратом только раз в неделю. Один сеанс связи на перемещение совочка, один на верификацию, что попал куда надо. Итого две недели на каждую операцию.
The trajectory is temporarily deviated. Skybot not to blame.

Alex_II

Цитата: opinion от 06.06.2020 00:08:57И написано, что из-за того, что миссия в стадии наблюдений, а не развертывания, они могут работать с аппаратом только раз в неделю. Один сеанс связи на перемещение совочка, один на верификацию, что попал куда надо. Итого две недели на каждую операцию.
Всемогущие автоматы...
И мы пошли за так, на четвертак, за ради бога
В обход и напролом и просто пылью по лучу...

Sellin

Цитата: Alex_II от 06.06.2020 19:44:39Всемогущие автоматы...
Всё познается в сравнении.

Старый

Я вот не понял% а почему они боковым движением ковшика не поставили крота вертикально?
1. Ангара - единственный в истории мировой космонавтики случай когда новая ракета по всем параметрам хуже старой. (с) Старый Ламер
2. Всё что связано с Ангарой подчинено единственной задаче - выкачать из бюджета и распилить как можно больше денег.
3. Чем мрачнее реальность тем ярче бред.

Старый

Цитата: Старый от 08.06.2020 16:12:21Я вот не понял: почему они боковым движением ковшика не поставили крота вертикально?
1. Ангара - единственный в истории мировой космонавтики случай когда новая ракета по всем параметрам хуже старой. (с) Старый Ламер
2. Всё что связано с Ангарой подчинено единственной задаче - выкачать из бюджета и распилить как можно больше денег.
3. Чем мрачнее реальность тем ярче бред.

Serge V Iz

Боятся они лишних телодвижений. ) По кроту распространяются сильные вибрации, свободнолежащим он ускачет еще куда-нибудь. Они рискуют только зажимать его каким-либо образом.

Theoristos


tnt22

https://www.nasa.gov/feature/jpl/nasas-insight-flexes-its-arm-while-its-mole-hits-pause

Цитата: undefinedJuly 7, 2020

NASA's InSight Flexes Its Arm While Its 'Mole' Hits Pause

The movement of sand grains in the scoop on the end of NASA InSight's robotic arm
The movement of sand grains in the scoop on the end of NASA InSight's robotic arm suggests that the spacecraft's self-hammering "mole," which is in the soil beneath the scoop, had begun tapping the bottom of the scoop while hammering on June 20, 2020.
Credits: NASA/JPL-Caltech

NASA's InSight lander has been using its robotic arm to help the heat probe known as the "mole" burrow into Mars. The mission is providing the first look at the Red Planet's deep interior to reveal details about the formation of Mars and, ultimately, all rocky planets, including Earth.

Akin to a 16-inch-long (40-centimeter-long) pile driver, the self-hammering mole has experienced difficulty getting into the Martian soil since February 2019. It's mostly buried now, thanks to recent efforts to push down on the mole with the scoop on the end of the robotic arm. But whether it will be able to dig deep enough - at least 10 feet (3 meters) - to get an accurate temperature reading of the planet remains to be seen. Images taken by InSight during a Saturday, June 20, hammering session show bits of soil jostling within the scoop - possible evidence that the mole had begun bouncing in place, knocking the bottom of the scoop.

While the campaign to save the mole continues, the arm will be used to help carry out other science and engineering work. Here's what you can expect in the months ahead from the mission, which is led by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Southern California.

What's next for the mole?

The mole is part of an instrument called the Heat Flow and Physical Properties Package, or HP3, that the German Aerospace Center (DLR) provided NASA. While the scoop on the end of InSight's arm has blocked the mole from backing out of its pit again, it also blocks the arm's camera from seeing the mole and the pit that has formed around it. Over the next few weeks, the team will move the arm out of the way to better assess how the soil and mole are interacting.

The mole needs friction from soil in order to burrow. Ironically, loose soil provides that friction as it collapses around the mole. But the soil beneath InSight has proven to be cement-like duricrust, with dirt granules that stick together. As a result, recoil from the mole's self-hammering action causes it to bounce in place. So the team's next moves may be to provide that friction by scraping or chopping nearby soil to move it into the pit it's in.

More thoughts about the mole's recent progress can be found on a blog written by HP3's principal investigator, Tilman Spohn of DLR.

What's next for InSight's arm?

InSight landed on Mars on Nov. 26, 2018. Its robotic arm subsequently set HP3, a seismometer and the seismometer's Wind and Thermal Shield on to the planet's surface. While the arm has been key to helping the mole, scientists and engineers are eager to use the arm's camera to pan over InSight's solar panels, something they haven't done since July 17, 2019.

It's the dusty season on Mars, and the panels are likely coated with a fine layer of reddish-brown particles. Estimating how much dust is on the solar panels will let engineers better understand InSight's daily power supply.

Scientists also want to resume using the arm to spot meteors streaking across the night sky, as they did earlier in the mission. Doing so could help them predict how often meteors strike this part of the planet. They could also cross-check to see whether data from InSight's seismometer reveals a meteor impact on Mars shortly afterward.

What's next for the seismometer?

InSight's seismometer, called the Seismic Experiment for Interior Structure (SEIS), detected its first marsquake nearly three months after starting its measurements in January 2019. By the fall of 2019, it was detecting a potential quake or two per day. While SEIS has detected more than 480 seismic signals overall, the rate has dropped to less than one per week.

This rate change is tied to seasonal variations of atmospheric turbulence, which creates noise that covers up the tiny quake signals. Despite the protective Wind and Thermal Shield, SEIS is sensitive enough that shaking from the wind hitting the shield can make quakes harder to isolate.

More About InSight

JPL manages InSight for NASA's Science Mission Directorate. InSight is part of NASA's Discovery Program, managed by the agency's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama. Lockheed Martin Space in Denver built the InSight spacecraft, including its cruise stage and lander, and supports spacecraft operations for the mission.

A number of European partners, including France's Centre National d'Études Spatiales (CNES) and the German Aerospace Center (DLR), are supporting the InSight mission. CNES provided the Seismic Experiment for Interior Structure (SEIS) instrument to NASA, with the principal investigator at IPGP (Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris). Significant contributions for SEIS came from IPGP; the Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research (MPS) in Germany; the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH Zurich) in Switzerland; Imperial College London and Oxford University in the United Kingdom; and JPL. DLR provided the Heat Flow and Physical Properties Package (HP3) instrument, with significant contributions from the Space Research Center (CBK) of the Polish Academy of Sciences and Astronika in Poland. Spain's Centro de Astrobiología (CAB) supplied the temperature and wind sensors.

2020-124

Last Updated: July 7, 2020
Editor: Naomi Hartono

Старый

1. Ангара - единственный в истории мировой космонавтики случай когда новая ракета по всем параметрам хуже старой. (с) Старый Ламер
2. Всё что связано с Ангарой подчинено единственной задаче - выкачать из бюджета и распилить как можно больше денег.
3. Чем мрачнее реальность тем ярче бред.

Serge V Iz

08.07.2020 19:08:07 #1175 Последнее редактирование: 08.07.2020 20:08:10 от Serge V Iz
А где-нибудь есть более-менее точные данные о массе внутреннего молота и жесткости пружины (или, хотя бы, просто силе ее есжатия при максимально оттянутом молоте)? Че-то оно себя ведет так, как будто они слегка ляпнули в оценке согласованности этих параметров плюс силы тяжести на Марсе ))

Нашел: https://www.hou.usra.edu/meetings/lpsc2014/pdf/1325.pdf
ЦитатаThe new design to be implemented in the flight instrument will compress the hammering springs by 15 mm, resulting in a total hammering energy of 0.83 J for a spring constant of 7.4 N/mm.

Это чего получается? В момент отпускания молота, на этот гвоздик, массой как трубка Ф1х16 дюймов с какими-то потрохами и за вычетом массы молота и пружины, начинает действовать сила в 7.4х15Н или где-то 11 кгс, поднимающая этот гвоздик?

 ;D  ;D

max_schmurz

Будут фотографировать яму, а потом примут решение, закапывать ее или нет. Если закопают, то потом снова будут давить сверху ковшом:

The plan calls for retracting the arm and stereo imaging the pit with the Mole in its interior. We will be interested to see how deep in the Mole really is (it should be a centimetre or so below the surface), whether the morphology of the pit has changed and whether the sand that we had seen in the pit is still there or whether the pit has been drained by the hammering action.

Depending on what the imaging reveals, we plan to see whether or not we can move enough sand into the pit to provide the necessary friction, likely aided by pushing on the sand pile using the scoop to provide additional pressure (see the sketch below). This will be different from pushing on the duricrust surface because the sand has no rigidity and can transfer the force more readily. The scoop will, in addition, guard against the Mole backing out.


https://www.dlr.de/blogs/en/all-blog-posts/The-InSight-mission-logbook.aspx

smokan

12.07.2020 12:40:51 #1177 Последнее редактирование: 12.07.2020 12:43:32 от smokan
Сол 577
Ковш убрали

Victor123

НАСА самим нужно все делать, в том числе и такие штуки, а не пользоваться поделками непонятных фирмочек из Европы. Итальянцы додумались заказать датчик высоты для марсианского спускаемого аппарата у какой-то фирмы из Румынии. Фирма, вероятно, была создана именно для этого заказа, какими-то Специалистами из непонятно какой области что бы срубить по-быстрому бабла. Результат аппарат потерян, а тут только углубиться в грунт не могут. Если НАСА закажет у непонятной фирмы из ЕС какой ни будь жизненно важный узел, который используется при посадке, то результат будет такой же как у европейцев, аппарат будет потерян.
Имею скафандр готов путешествовать

max_schmurz