Американский запрет на коммерческие пуски на российских ракетах вступит в действие с 2023 года

Автор Salo, 11.11.2017 00:38:18

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Salo

То о чём так долго говорили большевики свершилось!
https://www.spaceintelreport.com/u-s-congress-deals-blow-commercial-satellite-launches-russian-proton-soyuz-rockets-delays-2023/
ЦитатаU.S. Congress deals blow to commercial satellite launches on Russian Proton, Soyuz rockets, but delays it to 2023                   
 by Peter B. de Selding | Nov 10, 2017                                     

Russia's Soyuz rocket on July 14 launched 72 small satellites, including 48 for Planet. Under legislation passed by the U.S. Congress, Soyuz launches would not be available for companies seeking to sell satellite services to the U.S. Defense Department starting in 2023. Credit: Roscosmos

LONDON -- The commercial satellite industry dodged a bullet on Nov. 9 when the U.S. Congress stopped just short of barring U.S. Defense Department purchases of services from satellites launched on Russian rockets.
Instead, a compromise between the more-aggressive U.S. House version and the Senate version, which contained no such ban, ended up with the restriction still in place, but not taking effect until Dec. 31, 2022.
"We now have five years to act, and in that time there is reason to hope we can get this restriction removed," said one satellite operator who has used Russian vehicles. "Obviously if the House version had prevailed, we would have been faced with an immediate problem."
Most big commercial satellite operators make use of Russian rockets, either the larger Proton, sold through International Launch Services (ILS) of Reston, Virginia; or the medium-lift Soyuz rocket, sold by ArianeGroup's Arianespace of Europe and by GK Launch Services of Moscow.
The geostationary-satellite fleet operators, including Intelsat, SES, Eutelsat, Inmarsat and Telesat, have always maintained they need at least three viable rockets to choose from. For now, that means ILS, Arianespace and SpaceX. The big fleet operators generate 10-15% of their annual bandwidth-sales revenue from the U.S. government, mainly the U.S. Defense Department.
Several fleet operators sought to make the best of the Congressional action, saying it is proof that their industry has at least some voice in Washington, even if was insufficient to prevent the House from bundling a launcher ban into a wider concern about information assurance.
Nonetheless, it was clear that the satellite sector was unable to persuade the Congress not to hinder the business of an industry that provides some 70% of the U.S. government satellite communications requirements.
The new law means that after having imposed a de facto ban on commercial satellite launches using Chinese rockets, and a now-porous ban on commercial U.S. use of India's rocket, the U.S. government has further narrowed the launch options for companies wishing to remain in its favor.
It was unclear whether any of the current or prospective U.S. launch providers -- Blue Origin, United Launch Alliance, SpaceX or Virgin Galactic/Virgin Orbit -- was active in crafting the House language. United Launch Alliance has its own issues with the U.S. Congress with respect to its use, on the Atlas rocket, of Russian engines for U.S. military satellite launches.
The congressional decision, embedded in the National Defense Authorization Act, affects not just operators of commercial geostationary-orbit telecommunications satellites, but also operators of mega-constellations of broadband satellites in low Earth orbit.

Possible impact for constellations, Earth observation, smallsat market
The OneWeb constellation, for example, has purchased 21 Soyuz launches from Arianespace. While these launches are scheduled to be completed before the congressional measure takes effect, the restriction will have to be taken into account for next-generation OneWeb launches and for other constellation operators seeking launch capacity. The SES-owned O3b constellation thusfar has been launched exclusively aboard Soyuz rockets from Europe's spaceport.
It also affects commercial Earth observation companies like Planet of San Francisco, which has repeatedly argued that it needs the widest possible access to launch capacity to manage its business of launching dozens of short-lived satellites into very low Earth orbit.
These companies, including Planet of San Francisco; and small-satellite launch aggregators including Spaceflight Industries of Seattle and Integrated Solutions in Space (ISIS) of The Netherlands, have made regular use of the Soyuz rocket.
The restriction on the use of Russian rockets for those seeking to sell satellite services to the U.S. government applies to Russian rockets wherever they are launched, according to an industry official whose company has used Soyuz from Europe's Guiana Space Center.
Europe's ArianeGroup and Arianespace is planning to reduce its use of Europeanized Russian Soyuz vehicles as it moves to a more European-built launch portfolio including the Ariane 6 rocket starting in 2020 and the more-powerful version of the Italian-led Vega rocket, called Vega-C, starting in 2019.
The Vega-C and the lighter version of Ariane 6 will cover the market niche now occupied by the Europeanized Soyuz, with a full phase-out scheduled to occur by around 2023.
 
Excerpt from the NDAA after House-Senate compromise
The NDAA language, which now goes to U.S. President Donald Trump for signature, reads in part:
"[T]he Secretary [of Defense] may not enter into a contract for satellite services with any entity if the Secretary reasonably believes that such satellite services will be provided using satellites that will be 'designed or manufactured in a covered foreign country, or by an entity controlled in whole or in part by, or acting on behalf of, the government of a covered foreign country, regardless of the location of the launch (unless such location is in the United 11 States)," the final version of the NDAA reads.
"The limitation... shall not apply with respect to... a launch that occurs prior to December 31, 2022; or... a contract or other agreement relating to launch services that, prior to the date that is 180 days after the date of the enactment of this subsection, was either fully paid for by the contractor or covered by a legally binding commitment of the contractor to pay for such services."
"The term 'covered foreign country' means any of the following: (A) A country described in section 8 1261(c)(2) of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2013; (B) The Russian Federation."
"Были когда-то и мы рысаками!!!"

triage

Ну в тексте есть и 
ЦитатаRussia's Soyuz rocket on July 14 launched 72 small satellites, including 48 for Planet. Under legislation passed by the U.S. Congress, Soyuz launches would not be available for companies seeking to sell satellite services to the U.S. Defense Department starting in 2023.

The commercial satellite industry dodged a bullet on Nov. 9 when the U.S. Congress stopped just short of barring U.S. Defense Department purchases of services from satellites launched on Russian rockets.

The restriction on the use of Russian rockets for those seeking to sell satellite services to the U.S. government applies to Russian rockets wherever they are launched, according to an industry official whose company has used Soyuz from Europe's Guiana Space Center.

Более раннее по теме
Цитатаhttp://spacenews.com/white-house-objects-to-ndaa-provision-that-would-prevent-dod-from-using-commercial-satellites-launched-on-russian-rockets/

White House objects to NDAA provision that would prevent DoD from using commercial satellites launched on Russian rockets

by Caleb Henry -- July 12, 2017

triage

Цитатаhttp://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?req=granuleid:USC-prelim-title10-section2279&num=0&edition=prelim

10 USC 2279: Foreign commercial satellite services and foreign launches
Text contains those laws in effect on April 3, 2018

From Title 10-ARMED FORCES
Subtitle A-General Military Law
PART IV-SERVICE, SUPPLY, AND PROCUREMENT
CHAPTER 135-SPACE PROGRAMS
....
§2279. Foreign commercial satellite services and foreign launches
(a) Prohibition.-Except as provided in subsection (c), the Secretary of Defense may not enter into a contract for satellite services with a foreign entity if the Secretary reasonably believes that-

 Скрытый текст:
(1) the foreign entity is an entity in which the government of a covered foreign country has an ownership interest that enables that government to affect satellite operations;

(2) the foreign entity plans to or is expected to provide satellite services under the contract from a covered foreign country; or

(3) entering into such contract would create an unacceptable cybersecurity risk for the Department of Defense.


(b) Launches and Manufacturers.-

(1) Limitation.-In addition to the prohibition in subsection (a), and except as provided in paragraph (2) and in subsection (c), the Secretary may not enter into a contract for satellite services with any entity if the Secretary reasonably believes that such satellite services will be provided using satellites that will be-

(A) designed or manufactured in a covered foreign country, or by an entity controlled in whole or in part by, or acting on behalf of, the government of a covered foreign country; or

(B) launched using a launch vehicle that is designed or manufactured in a covered foreign country, or that is provided by the government of a covered foreign country or by an entity controlled in whole or in part by, or acting on behalf of, the government of a covered foreign country, regardless of the location of the launch (unless such location is in the United States).
(2) Exception.-The limitation in paragraph (1) shall not apply with respect to-

(A) a launch that occurs prior to December 31, 2022
; or

(B) a contract or other agreement relating to launch services that, prior to the date that is 180 days after the date of the enactment of this subsection, was either fully paid for by the contractor or covered by a legally binding commitment of the contractor to pay for such services.
 Скрытый текст:
(3) Launch vehicle defined.-In this subsection, the term "launch vehicle" means a fully integrated space launch vehicle.

(c) Notice and Exception.-The prohibitions in subsection 1 (a) and (b) shall not apply to a contract if-

(1) the Secretary determines it is in the national security of the United States to enter into such contract; and

(2) not later than 7 days before entering into such contract, the Secretary, in consultation with the Director of National Intelligence, submits to the congressional defense committees a national security assessment for such contract that includes the following:

(A) The projected period of performance (including any period covered by options to extend the contract), the financial terms, and a description of the services to be provided under the contract.

(B) To the extent practicable, a description of the ownership interest that a covered foreign country has in the foreign entity providing satellite services to the Department of Defense under the contract and the launch or other satellite services that will be provided in a covered foreign country under the contract.

(C) A justification for entering into a contract with such foreign entity and a description of the actions necessary to eliminate the need to enter into such a contract with such foreign entity in the future.

(D) A risk assessment of entering into a contract with such foreign entity, including an assessment of mission assurance and security of information and a description of any measures necessary to mitigate risks found by such risk assessment.
(d) Delegation of Notice and Exception Authority.-The Secretary of Defense may only delegate the authority under subsection (c) to enter into a contract subject to the prohibition under subsection (a) or (b) to the Deputy Secretary of Defense, the Under Secretary of Defense for Policy, or the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics and such authority may not be further delegated.

(e) Form of Assessments.-Each assessment under subsection (c) shall be submitted in unclassified form, but may include a classified annex.

(f) Definitions.-In this section:

(1) The term "covered foreign country" means any of the following:

(A) A country described in section 1261(c)(2) of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2013 (Public Law 112-239; 126 Stat. 2019).

(B) The Russian Federation.
....
OneWeb тут совместное предприятие создал - подпадает или нет....

ааа

Исходя из сегодняшней политической обстановки эта новость выглядит оптимистичной: США и Россия не уничтожат друг друга до 2023-го года.
"One small step for a man, one giant leap for mankind." ©N.Armstrong
 "Let my people go!" ©L.Armstrong

Старый

Цитатаааа пишет:
США и Россия не уничтожат друг друга до 2023-го года.
Я бы зуб давать не стал. Закон был принят ещё до нынешних веяний.
1. Ангара - единственный в истории мировой космонавтики случай когда новая ракета по всем параметрам хуже старой. (с) Старый Ламер
2. Всё что связано с Ангарой подчинено единственной задаче - выкачать из бюджета и распилить как можно больше денег.
3. Чем мрачнее реальность тем ярче бред.

silent.sasha silent

до 2023 года воруем, убиваем, гуляем, бухаем, е,,,м гусей, а там посмотрим ...  )))))))

ну а если серьезно - к 2023 году у США планируется 2 пилотируемых корабля на НОО и 1 для дальнего космоса, новые 3 ракеты, чтобы полететь хоть куда и без российских двигателей, завершение эксплуатации МКС и начало нового проекта - лунной орбитальной станции.

у нас к 2023 году планируется только начало эксплуатации "Ангары".

Видимо поэтому "Протон" закрывают. Если "Протон" закроют, то для чего нам Байконур ?

2 раза в год отправить космонавтов, из которых 1 - это турист  ?

Odin

Цитатаsilent.sasha silent пишет: 2 раза в год отправить космонавтов, из которых 1 - это турист ?
Это тогда - куда?

silent.sasha silent

пока на МКС. она же сразу не рухнет после 2023 года ? еще полетает же ?

Старый

Цитатаsilent.sasha silent пишет:
до 2023 года воруем, убиваем, гуляем, бухаем, е,,,м гусей
Видимо поэтому "Протон" закрывают.
Помедленнее пожалуйста, я не успеваю за зигзагами логики.
1. Ангара - единственный в истории мировой космонавтики случай когда новая ракета по всем параметрам хуже старой. (с) Старый Ламер
2. Всё что связано с Ангарой подчинено единственной задаче - выкачать из бюджета и распилить как можно больше денег.
3. Чем мрачнее реальность тем ярче бред.

Искандер

ЦитатаSalo пишет:
То о чём так долго говорили большевики свершилось!
Душераздирающее зрелище.
Пессимистично так. А за 5 лет ишак может здохнуть. 
Придётся закон отменять. ))
Aures habent et non audient, oculos habent et non videbunt

Raul

Цитатаsilent.sasha silent пишет:
до 2023 года воруем, убиваем, гуляем, бухаем, е,,,м гусей, а там посмотрим ...)))))))
Предупредили заранее, по всем правилам вежливого обхождения.
Цитатаsilent.sasha silent пишет:
у нас к 2023 году планируется только начало эксплуатации "Ангары".
Cпутники МО будет на чем запускать. Ангара 1.2 и Союз 2.1в - наше все.
Цитатаsilent.sasha silent пишет:
Видимо поэтому "Протон" закрывают. Если "Протон" закроют, то для чего нам Байконур ?
В качестве резервной площадки для запуска Союзов.
Цитатаsilent.sasha silent пишет:
к 2023 году у США планируется 2 пилотируемых корабля на НОО и один - для дальнего космоса.
Цитатаsilent.sasha silent пишет:
2 раза в год отправить космонавтов, из которых 1 - это турист?
Ну так паритет ведь. Для дальнего космоса у нас есть Зонды, которые летали вокруг Луны. Даже были планы отправлять на них туристов, которые почему-то не получили развития.
Цитатаsilent.sasha silent пишет:
новые 3 ракеты, чтобы полететь хоть куда и без российских двигателей, завершение эксплуатации МКС и начало нового проекта - лунной орбитальной станции.
Ну "хоть куда" это сильно громко сказано. Лететь хоть куда пока мешает недостаточная стойкость их астронавтов к радиации. А Луна - она не хоть где, а вполне рядом.
Земля не может, не может не вращаться,
А мур не может, не может не мурчать!

triage

Цитатаlaunched using a launch vehicle that is designed or manufactured in a covered foreign country, or that is provided by the government of a covered foreign country or by an entity controlled in whole or in part by, or acting on behalf of, the government of a covered foreign country, regardless of the location of the launch (unless such location is in the United States).
:)  за исключением

Василий Ратников

Цитатаpnetmon пишет:
за исключением
ULA и Орбитал низя обижать
война войной а бизнес по расписанию.

triage


PIN

Цитатаpnetmon пишет:
мда....русскими буквами - Морской Старт
При чем здесь МС? Они никогда не запускали с территории США и не будут запускать.

Артём Сухоев

ЦитатаSalo пишет:
То о чём так долго говорили большевики свершилось!
 https://www.spaceintelreport.com/u-s-congress-deals-blow-commercial-satellite-launches-russian-proton-soyuz-rockets-delays-2023/
ЦитатаU.S. Congress deals blow to commercial satellite launches on Russian Proton, Soyuz rockets, but delays it to 2023                   
 by Peter B. de Selding | Nov 10, 2017                                     
 
 Russia's Soyuz rocket on July 14 launched 72 small satellites, including 48 for Planet. Under legislation passed by the U.S. Congress, Soyuz launches would not be available for companies seeking to sell satellite services to the U.S. Defense Department starting in 2023. Credit: Roscosmos

LONDON -- The commercial satellite industry dodged a bullet on Nov. 9 when the U.S. Congress stopped just short of barring U.S. Defense Department purchases of services from satellites launched on Russian rockets.
Instead, a compromise between the more-aggressive U.S. House version and the Senate version, which contained no such ban, ended up with the restriction still in place, but not taking effect until Dec. 31, 2022.
"We now have five years to act, and in that time there is reason to hope we can get this restriction removed," said one satellite operator who has used Russian vehicles. "Obviously if the House version had prevailed, we would have been faced with an immediate problem."
Most big commercial satellite operators make use of Russian rockets, either the larger Proton, sold through International Launch Services (ILS) of Reston, Virginia; or the medium-lift Soyuz rocket, sold by ArianeGroup's Arianespace of Europe and by GK Launch Services of Moscow.
The geostationary-satellite fleet operators, including Intelsat , SES , Eutelsat, Inmarsat and Telesat , have always maintained they need at least three viable rockets to choose from. For now, that means ILS, Arianespace and SpaceX . The big fleet operators generate 10-15% of their annual bandwidth-sales revenue from the U.S. government, mainly the U.S. Defense Department.
Several fleet operators sought to make the best of the Congressional action, saying it is proof that their industry has at least some voice in Washington, even if was insufficient to prevent the House from bundling a launcher ban into a wider concern about information assurance.
Nonetheless, it was clear that the satellite sector was unable to persuade the Congress not to hinder the business of an industry that provides some 70% of the U.S. government satellite communications requirements.
The new law means that after having imposed a de facto ban on commercial satellite launches using Chinese rockets, and a now-porous ban on commercial U.S. use of India' s rocket, the U.S. government has further narrowed the launch options for companies wishing to remain in its favor.
It was unclear whether any of the current or prospective U.S. launch providers -- Blue Origin , United Launch Alliance , SpaceX or Virgin Galactic/Virgin Orbit -- was active in crafting the House language. United Launch Alliance has its own issues with the U.S. Congress with respect to its use, on the Atlas rocket, of Russian engines for U.S. military satellite launches.
The congressional decision, embedded in the National Defense Authorization Act, affects not just operators of commercial geostationary-orbit telecommunications satellites, but also operators of mega-constellations of broadband satellites in low Earth orbit.

 Possible impact for constellations, Earth observation, smallsat market
The OneWeb constellation, for example, has purchased 21 Soyuz launches from Arianespace. While these launches are scheduled to be completed before the congressional measure takes effect, the restriction will have to be taken into account for next-generation OneWeb launches and for other constellation operators seeking launch capacity. The SES-owned O3b constellation thusfar has been launched exclusively aboard Soyuz rockets from Europe's spaceport.
It also affects commercial Earth observation companies like Planet of San Francisco, which has repeatedly argued that it needs the widest possible access to launch capacity to manage its business of launching dozens of short-lived satellites into very low Earth orbit.
These companies, including Planet of San Francisco; and small-satellite launch aggregators including Spaceflight Industries of Seattle and Integrated Solutions in Space (ISIS ) of The Netherlands, have made regular use of the Soyuz rocket.
The restriction on the use of Russian rockets for those seeking to sell satellite services to the U.S. government applies to Russian rockets wherever they are launched, according to an industry official whose company has used Soyuz from Europe's Guiana Space Center.
Europe's ArianeGroup and Arianespace is planning to reduce its use of Europeanized Russian Soyuz vehicles as it moves to a more European-built launch portfolio including the Ariane 6 rocket starting in 2020 and the more-powerful version of the Italian-led Vega rocket, called Vega-C, starting in 2019.
The Vega-C and the lighter version of Ariane 6 will cover the market niche now occupied by the Europeanized Soyuz, with a full phase-out scheduled to occur by around 2023.
 
 Excerpt from the NDAA after House-Senate compromise
The NDAA language, which now goes to U.S. President Donald Trump for signature, reads in part:
"[T]he Secretary [of Defense] may not enter into a contract for satellite services with any entity if the Secretary reasonably believes that such satellite services will be provided using satellites that will be 'designed or manufactured in a covered foreign country, or by an entity controlled in whole or in part by, or acting on behalf of, the government of a covered foreign country, regardless of the location of the launch (unless such location is in the United 11 States)," the final version of the NDAA reads.
"The limitation... shall not apply with respect to... a launch that occurs prior to December 31, 2022; or... a contract or other agreement relating to launch services that, prior to the date that is 180 days after the date of the enactment of this subsection, was either fully paid for by the contractor or covered by a legally binding commitment of the contractor to pay for such services."
"The term 'covered foreign country' means any of the following: (A) A country described in section 8 1261©(2) of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2013; (B) The Russian Federation."
Ну всё нормально?


triage

ЦитатаК теме военных и покупки услуги
 http://spacenews.com/space-communications-as-the-industry-launches-new-products-military-cant-decide-what-to-buy/
Space communications: As the industry launches new products, military can't decide what to buy
by Sandra Erwin -- March 26, 2018

WASHINGTON -- The latest Pentagon review of how the U.S. military should buy space communications is expected to wrap up in the coming weeks. The likely conclusion is that the military needs a mix of government-owned satellites and commercial services.
 Скрытый текст:
...
The military for decades has used commercial services from GEO satellite operators to supplement the government-owned Wideband Global SATCOM. This industry not only faces competition from LEO systems but also from the government itself.

The Air Force has bought 10 WGS satellites -- some with funding from international allies that use the service -- and had planned to stop acquiring new ones and use more commercial services. Congress has disrupted that plan by adding $600 million to the fiscal year 2018 budget for two new WGS satellites. The move was seen as a sign that Congress is not confident in the Air Force's strategy to acquire satcom services.
...
In programs known as "pathfinders," DoD has become more familiar with "how to buy bandwidth and managed services," he told SpaceNews. "Unfortunately there's a lot of legal statutes that probably slow some things down," he added. "The general conclusion is that we are heading to a hybrid architecture" with both military and commercial systems.
...
"We still haven't done that," Weeden said. It is natural for bureaucracies to want to keep their budgets and their missions from being challenged. A shift from buying satellites to using commercial services could mean the end of many offices and jobs. So a decision of whether to buy commercial "ends up not being about rational analysis but organizational cultures and how those impact decision making."

triage

Вверх, т.к. интересно читается вместе с этой темой
Цитата https://ria.ru/science/20181106/1532172181.html

МОСКВА, 2 ноя - РИА Новости. Компания-коммерческий оператор пусков ракет "Протон" и "Рокот" International Lauch Services (ILS), перестанет быть дочкой Центра имени Хруничева (производитель ракет) и будет подчинена непосредственно "Роскосмосу", заявил РИА Новости глава "Роскосмоса" Дмитрий Рогозин.

"Есть своя дочерняя компания ILS, которая раньше была оператором на рынке космических пусков "Протонов" и "Рокотов". Она была дочкой Центра Хруничева. Сейчас мы эту фирму забираем, она будет дочерью самого Роскосмоса", -- сказал Рогозин.

Он отметил, что намеревается посетить штаб-квартиру ILS в Вашингтоне в ходе своей предстоящей поездки в США. Кроме этого, Рогозин собрался встретиться с потенциальными заказчиками и рассказать им про возможности новой российской ракеты тяжелого класса "Ангара".

"Я хочу посетить штаб-квартиру в Вашингтоне, встретиться с заказчиками со всеми потенциальными, рассказать им про средства выведения, в том числе про Ангару, её возможности. Чтобы оператор помог нам вернуться на рынок космических запусков", -- добавил Рогозин.
Просто некоторые доказывали что рынок будет полностью закрыт, так вот едет...

Salo

Цитатаpnetmon пишет:
Просто некоторые доказывали что рынок будет полностью закрыт, так вот едет...
https://tass.ru/mezhdunarodnaya-panorama/6490551
Цитата30 мая, 16:03
Пентагон запретил пользоваться услугами России при космических пусках
Запрет вступит в силу с 31 декабря 2022 года


//© Сергей Савостьянов/ТАСС
ВАШИНГТОН, 30 мая. /ТАСС/. Пентагон включил Россию в список стран, чьими услугами запрещено пользоваться при проведении космических пусков. Запрет вступает в силу с 31 декабря 2022 года.
Соответствующее уведомление было размещено в четверг занимающимся вопросами закупок управлением Пентагона на сайте сборника официальных документов американского правительства - Федерального реестра.
В нем говорится, что Россия вносится в перечень государств, в который также входят Сирия, Судан, Иран, КНДР и Китай, услугами которых с 31 декабря 2022 года будет запрещено пользоваться при проведении запусков коммерческих спутников.
И?
"Были когда-то и мы рысаками!!!"