Автор Salo, 16.09.2008 16:05:48
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ЦитатаЛуноход пишет:Серьёзно американцы за Марс взялись...
ЦитатаNASA's next Mars mission inside 100 days from launchBY STEPHEN CLARKSPACEFLIGHT NOWPosted: August 10, 2013 The team in charge of NASA's $671 million Mars orbiter due for liftoff in November says the project is on schedule and on budget for launch during an immovable 20-day interplanetary window this fall.Workers lift the MAVEN spacecraft onto a rotation fixture inside a clean room at the Kennedy Space Center. Credit: NASA/Tim Jacobs The Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution, or MAVEN, mission is being sent to the red planet to answer a fundamental question: Why did Mars dry up and cool off? Скрытый текст: The MAVEN spacecraft arrived at the Kennedy Space Center on Aug. 2 on a U.S. Air Force C-17 transport plane. MAVEN was built by Lockheed Martin in Denver, then moved to Florida for final launch preparations."We're in good shape," said David Mitchell, MAVEN project manager at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Maryland. "I don't want to claim success until we're actually there, [but] I'll say right now we're on the plan and on the budget. It's a tremendous thing the team has accomplished."Its launch is scheduled aboard a United Launch Alliance Atlas 5 rocket from Cape Canaveral on Nov. 18. The mission has 20 days to depart Earth, or else stay grounded for 26 months to wait for the planets to properly align again to make the journey possible."When you have a planetary launch period of 20 days, and then you have to stand down for 26 months, there's a real sense of urgency in decision-making and trades to keep moving forward," Mitchell said.MAVEN is NASA's 10th Mars mission to launch since 1996. Eight of those reached their destinations, either Mars orbit or the red planet's surface.The armada of probes dispatched to Mars in the last 15 years have answered key questions about Mars, its evolution, habitability and geology. But while scientists know more about the Martian environment of today and yesteryear, Bruce Jakosky, MAVEN's principal investigator, said little is known about how Mars transitioned from a warmer, wetter world into the barren planet of today."We're trying to understand why the climate changed on Mars - why Mars appears to have gone from an environment that was habitable, to microorganisms at least, to one that is the cold, dry, uninhabitable environment we see today," said Jakosky, a scientist from the University of Colorado at Boulder's Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics. "By looking at the nature of the upper atmosphere today, we learn about the processes that control the atmopshere, and we're going to have a good understanding of what the history of the atmosphere has been."Mitchell and Jakosky said teams are focused on keeping MAVEN on track for its Nov. 18 launch date.An artist's concept of MAVEN orbiting Mars. Credit: NASA "To see it safely here in Florida, the last destination before it heads to Mars, is incredible," Mitchell said. "It's been a lot of years working together, and it's been a great team effort. They've landed it right on schedule, and we're still tracking to the original launch date we had planned when our proposal was selected five years ago."MAVEN was selected by NASA in 2008 after a competition, beating out another orbiter that would have measured biogenic constituents such as methane in the atmosphere.Officials say MAVEN's total cost is $671 million. That figure includes the costs of constructing the spacecraft, the Atlas 5 launcher, and a year of operations at the red planet.Lockheed Martin, which has a history of building interplanetary probes for NASA, used work on previous missions to MAVEN's benefit, said Guy Beutelschies, the company's MAVEN program manager.Beutelschies said designers based MAVEN's spacecraft bus, propulsion module and communications systems on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, which launched to the red planet in 2005. And engineers recycled much of the software and avionics used on NASA's Jupiter-bound Juno mission for MAVEN."The structure of MAVEN is almost identical to MRO," Beutelschies said, adding MAVEN is a bit smaller but has a larger fuel tank.Lockheed Martin also altered MAVEN's solar panels, which extend 37.5 tip-to-tip feet when unfurled, to be canted at an angle on each end. Beutelschies said the design makes the spacecraft more stable when it dips into the Martian atmosphere, which MAVEN will do at least five times to get a taste of what is going on at lower altitudes.Technicians began assembling MAVEN in Denver last summer, then Lockheed Martin put the spacecraft through a series of extensive of tests to ensure the probe will survive the vibrations and acoustic noise of launch and the extreme temperatures and vacuum of space.MAVEN came through the tests unscathed, and engineers put the spacecraft inside an 18-foot-tall canister for shipment to Cape Canaveral. Workers opened up the box inside a clean room at KSC's Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility on Aug. 3, beginning a three-month campaign to prepare the one-of-a-kind spacecraft for its trip to Mars. Technicians bolted on MAVEN's high-gain communications antenna Friday.Lockheed Martin engineers load the MAVEN spacecraft aboard an Air Force C-17 transport plane at Buckley Air Force Base, Colo. Credit: Stephen Clark/Spaceflight Now They planned to install three of the craft's five attitude-controlling reaction wheels, which needed to be recalibrated, according to Jakosky, who said the wheels used by MAVEN are different than the wheels used by NASA's Kepler telescope, which has suspended science operations due to reaction wheel failures.Plans called for workers inside the clean room to plug in several of MAVEN's suite of scientific instruments undergoing last-minute touch-ups at Space Sciences Laboratory at the University of California at Berkeley.The first power-up of the MAVEN spacecraft since its arrival in Florida is scheduled for next week."Then we'll start checking all the systems out to make sure the flight, and the transportation, there was no issue," Mitchell said. "I'm sure there won't be an issue, but we have to check it. Then we'll go into some deployment testing of some of the appendages, do a dry spin balance of the spacecraft to get the mass properties with everything on-board, fuel the spacecraft with hydrazine, and then pretty soon we'll be getting into integrated operations with the launch vehicle."With its propellant tank empty, MAVEN weighs less than a ton. With a tank full of hydrazine, MAVEN will tip the scales at more than 5,400 pounds at the time of launch. Most of the propellant will be consumed during a lengthy rocket firing to brake MAVEN into orbit around Mars in September 2014.MAVEN will be encapsulated inside the two halves of the Atlas 5's four-meter diameter payload fairing around the end of October, then the spacecraft will be trucked to the seaside launch pad in early November, Mitchell said.With MAVEN perched atop it, the Atlas 5 will roll to the launch pad Nov. 17, ahead of its planned liftoff one day later to begin a 10-month journey to Mars.If MAVEN blasts off Nov. 18, its arrival is appointed for Sept. 22, 2014, Mitchell said. MAVEN will enter an elongated, oval-shaped orbit and then spiral down to a science orbit with a high point of more than 3,700 miles and a low point 90 miles above the Martian surface.Controllers will deploy instrument booms and a sensor platform soon after MAVEN's arrival at Mars. The payloads will monitor the solar wind's impact on Mars and scoop up and study gases in the outermost layers of the Martian atmosphere."After we get to Mars, there's about a five-week commissioning phase, then we go into one year of operations," Mitchell said.NASA could extend MAVEN's mission beyond late 2015 if the spacecraft remains healthy and producing good science results. The probe carries enough propellant to stay operational for nearly a decade, according to fuel projections by Lockheed Martin."What we're really getting at is understanding the history of the climate, the history of the volatile inventory, and I think the understanding of the history of the habitability of Mars by microbes," Jakosky said. "I see it as a geology mission, or an astrobiology mission, because that's what we're getting at by studying the top of the atmosphere and its interactions with the sun."
ЦитатаMAVEN high gain antenna attached @NASAKennedy in preparation for 11/18 launch window opening
ЦитатаShip arrives in port with @ulalaunch Delta Mariner to offload Atlas V that will launch MAVEN.
Цитата[Updated] A Government Shutdown Could Delay MAVEN's Launch to Mars Posted by Casey Dreier2013/09/30 05:17 CDTA government shutdown could affect the launch schedule for MAVEN, NASA's next mission to Mars.Dwane Brown, Senior Public Affairs Officer at NASA, confirmed that "a shutdown could delay the pre-launch processing currently under way with a possible impact to the scheduled Nov. 18 launch date."MAVEN is NASA's latest mission to Mars. It is an orbiter that will look for clues to understand the disappearance of the red planet's atmosphere. The spacecraft currently sits in a clean room at NASA's Kennedy Space Center, going through its final stages of assembly and checkout prior to launch. NASA / Kim Shiflett MAVEN with solar panels open in the clean room for the last time On September 27, 2013, members of the media were given a final opportunity to view the MAVEN Mars orbiter before it was prepared for launch. Unless the U.S. Congress can reach agreement on a short-term extension to the federal budget, however, most government services will be closed and hundreds of thousands of civil servants will be forced to remain home without pay. This includes approximately 97% of NASA's total workforce, leaving only a skeleton crew to support the astronauts on the International Space Station.The best information we have is from NASA's shutdown guidelines [pdf], which state that "if a space launch has not commenced or is not in flight, preparation activities will generally cease, except to maintain powered systems to monitor and maintain the safety of the assets."If that sounds a little vague, it is. But it's really hard to know what the impact to MAVEN's schedule will be. It's an understandably fluid situation, and the full impact of a shutdown - if it even happens at all - won't be known until after the government resumes its business. Even Lockheed-Martin, the prime contractor building MAVEN, doesn't know what will happen yet.The worse-case scenario is that MAVEN misses its launch opportunity to Mars. These only come around every 26 months and remain open for only a short time. MAVEN's has only 20 days between November 18th and December 7th. If MAVEN cannot launch in time, it will have to wait for the next opportunity in early 2016, a delay that would cost NASA's Planetary Science Division tens of millions of dollars it cannot afford. Ben Cooper / launchphotography.com MAVEN in the clean room Ben Cooper was one of a few members of the media privileged to visit the MAVEN Mars orbiter in the clean room at Kennedy Space Center as it underwent its final preparations for launch to Mars. Remember, until a shutdown actually happens, the mission is officially on schedule. Even then, it's possible that the shutdown may be brief. We will continue to follow this story as closely as possible.More pictures of MAVEN in its clean room.
ЦитатаSN Blog | And So It Begins By Jeff Foust, Spacepolitics.com | Oct. 1, 2013By midday Tuesday, Oct. 1, visitors to www.nasa.gov were greeted to this message about the shutdown. The good news was that President Obama mentioned NASA in a speech. The bad news: the speech was about the impending federal government shutdown and its effects on various agencies. "NASA will shut down almost entirely," he said in a speech late Monday afternoon, after noting that many essential government functions will continue, "but Mission Control will remain open to support the astronauts serving on the Space Station."As noted here Friday, only a few hundred of NASA's employees will remain on the job today, working mission control for the ISS and operating other spacecraft. Most other NASA activities will come to a halt, including the agency's extensive public outreach work.NASA kicked off yesterday an "Asteroid Initiative Idea Synthesis Workshop" workshop in Houston, selecting almost 100 participants fr om the more than 400 who submitted papers to the agency's request for information earlier this summer asking for ideas on how to carry out the agency's asteroid initiative. The workshop was scheduled to continue today and tomorrow, but according to one participant, the rest of the workshop has been cancelled because of the shutdown. ЦитатаNASA ✔ @NASADue to the gov't shutdown, all public NASA activities/events are cancelled or postponed until further notice. Sorry for the inconvenience.3:24 PM - 1 Oct 2013The effects of the shutdown go beyond shuttered Twitter accounts and cancelled symposia. While NASA's interpretation of shutdown rules allow it to continue operating existing satellites (albeit with skeleton crews and lim ited, if any, science operations), work on missions under development "will generally cease." That means, The Planetary Society notes, that preparations for the launch of the MAVEN Mars mission will come to a halt, a month and a half before its scheduled launch. MAVEN's launch window runs only to early December, so if there is an extended shutdown, it's possible MAVEN will miss the window and have to wait until the next launch window in early 2016.The shutdown also has varying impacts for other non-NASA space activities in the military at NOAA, and the FAA. The FAA noted that next week's meetings of the Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee will be cancelled if the government is still in shutdown mode by midday on Monday, October 7 (the meetings are October 9 and 10.)And, if you're curious, the Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex, run by a private organization, remains open even with most of NASA shut down. However, bus tours of KSC are cancelled.This post originally appeared on spacepolitics.com. Used with permission.
ЦитатаNASA ✔ @NASADue to the gov't shutdown, all public NASA activities/events are cancelled or postponed until further notice. Sorry for the inconvenience.3:24 PM - 1 Oct 2013
ЦитатаLaunch Preparations for MAVEN Back On, 03.10. 2013 Launch preparations are back on for the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution (MAVEN) orbiter despite the U.S. government shutdown that has idled all but 500 or so of NASA's 18,000 civil servants.MAVEN Principal Investigator Bruce Jakosky told SpaceNews late Thursday afternoon (Oct. 3) that NASA has designated MAVEN launch preparations exempt from the shutdown since the orbiter must launch in 2013 in order to protect NASA spacecraft already in the Mars system.The MAVEN team at the Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics (LASP) at the University of Colorado, Boulder, also announced the news via Twitter. "#MAVEN receives emergency exemption. Work will resume @NASAKennedy to prepare for Nov. 18 launch window opening," the team tweeted.The change in designation allows pre-launch processing activities to resume since under the rules of the partial U.S. government shutdown that went into effect following the failure of Congress to enact fresh appropriations by an Oct. 1 deadline, only activities considered necessary to protect life and property are allowed to continue during the funding lapse. Suspending launch preparation had thrown the orbiter's fall launch into doubt. "MAVEN is required as a communications relay in order to be assured of continued communications with the Curiosity and Opportunity rovers," Jakosky wrote in an Oct. 3 email. "The rovers are presently supported by Mars Odyssey launched in 2001 and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter launched in 2005. Launching MAVEN in 2013 protects the existing assets that are at Mars today."MAVEN launch preparations join international space station operations as one of the activities NASA personnel are permitted to support during the shutdown, according to Jakosky."We have already restarted spacecraft processing at Kennedy Space Center, working toward being ready to launch on Nov. 18," Jakosky said.Delaying MAVEN's launch some 26 months would add millions of dollars to the mission's already $670 million price tag. On top of that, Jakosky said the alignment of Earth and Mars in 2016 would require MAVEN to use more fuel to reach the red planet, potentially cutting into the time available for the craft's science mission and imperiling its ability to serve as a communications relay for the next six years. Conditions in 2016 would also be poorer for MAVEN's core science mission of measuring the interaction of solar particles with the upper Martian atmosphere, said Jakosky.
ЦитатаAtlas 5 launcher erected for MAVEN's launch to MarsBY STEPHEN CLARKSPACEFLIGHT NOWPosted: October 11, 2013 United Launch Alliance on Friday began assembling the Atlas 5 rocket assigned to launch NASA's MAVEN mission in November and send the orbiter on a 10-month cruise to Mars to help decipher the red planet's thinning atmosphere. File photo of an Atlas 5 first stage lifted atop its mobile launch platform. Credit: NASA The Atlas 5's bronze first stage traveled from a storage building at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Fla., to the Vertical Integration Facility at Complex 41 early Friday. Cranes hoisted the 106.6-foot-long first stage vertical and deftly placed the rocket atop the Atlas 5's mobile launch table.Powered by an RD-180 main engine delivering 860,000 pounds of thrust, the first stage is known as the Common Core Booster. It houses tanks to hold 50,000 gallons of chilled liquid oxygen and 25,000 gallons of RP-1 fuel, a highly refined variety of kerosene, for the RD-180 engine's four-minute burn to reach the upper atmosphere.Technicians planned to add an interstage adapter before hoisting the Atlas 5's Centaur upper stage atop the booster Monday, completing the build-up of the two-stage rocket.The launch of NASA's Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution, or MAVEN, mission only requires the most basic version of the Atlas 5 rocket. Called the "401" configuration, the Atlas 5 rocket for MAVEN features no solid rocket boosters, a Centaur stage with a single RL10 engine, and a four-meter payload fairing.ULA can add strap-on boosters, a second RL10 engine and a larger five-meter nose shroud for payloads requiring the extra capability.The launch of MAVEN will be the seventh Atlas 5 flight of the year, and the sixth from Cape Canaveral's seaside launch pad. ULA workers are in the final stretch of integrating and testing a Delta 4 rocket and its payload, a U.S. Air Force GPS navigation satellite, at Complex 37B for launch Oct. 23, less than 4 miles from the Atlas 5 rocket's launch pad.Preparations for MAVEN's launch continue despite the partial shutdown of the federal government. After a two-day pause in the spacecraft's processing last week, NASA granted an exemption to resume work on MAVEN, which is in a time crunch to launch in a narrow window between Nov. 18 and mid-December.Mars missions can only launch when the planets are properly aligned, and the next opportunity to launch MAVEN after December comes in early 2016.But thanks to its exemption from the government shutdown, MAVEN is on schedule to launch Nov. 18 in a two-hour launch window opening at 1:28 p.m. EST (1828 GMT).The $671 million mission will reach Mars in September 2014, entering an elliptical orbit dipping into the outermost layers of the Martian atmosphere to sample its composition and measure its response to stimuli from solar activity.Scientists hope MAVEN will address uncertainties in how Mars evolved from a planet with a warmer, thicker atmosphere with water into the barren world observed today.Technicians from Lockheed Martin Corp., MAVEN's prime contractor, will load about 3,600 pounds of hydrazine fuel into the spacecraft's propellant tank Oct. 24. The Atlas 5's clamshell-like payload fairing will encapsulate MAVEN on Nov. 5, and workers plan to transport the Mars orbiter to the Atlas 5 launch pad Nov. 7 to top off the 19-story launcher.
Цитата17 октября 2013 На двигателях НПО Энергомаш - к Марсу Компания ULA 12.10.13г начала сборку РН Атлас 5 для запуска КА MAVEN НАСА в ноябре с.г. к Марсу. Космический аппарат предназначен для исследования атмосферы красной планеты. В составе первой ступени РН - российский двигатель РД-180 разработки и производства НПО Энергомаш. Он использует жидкий кислород и специальный сорт керосина и в полете работает примерно 4 минуты. К первой ступени позднее будет прикреплена переходная секция и верхняя ступень Центавр. Сам КА будет установлен на РН 7 ноября. Это будет седьмой пуск РН Атлас 5 в этом году. Пуск запланирован на 18 ноября с.г., КА достигнет окрестностей Марса в сентябре 2014г.
Цитата#MAVEN's @ulalaunch Atlas V on launch pad at CCAFS Complex 41, fully loaded for today's Wet Dress Rehearsal |