JWST – Ariane 5 ECA – Kourou ELA-3 – 31.10.2021

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May 14, 2020

First Look: NASA's James Webb Space Telescope Fully Stowed

NASA's James Webb Space Telescope has been successfully folded and stowed into the same configuration it will have when loaded onto an Ariane 5 rocket for launch next year.

For NASA's James Webb Space Telescope to fit into an Ariane V rocket for launch, it must fold up. This graphic shows how Webb fits into the rocket fairing with little room to spare.
Credits: ArianeSpace.com

Webb is NASA's largest and most complex space science telescope ever built. Too big for any rocket available in its fully expanded form, the entire observatory was designed to fold in on itself to achieve a much smaller configuration. Once in space, the observatory will unfold and stretch itself out in a carefully practiced series of steps before beginning to make groundbreaking observations of the cosmos.

"The James Webb Space Telescope achieved another significant milestone with the entire observatory in its launch configuration for the first time, in preparation for environmental testing," said Bill Ochs, Webb project manager for NASA Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland. "I am very proud of the entire Northrop Grumman and NASA integration and test team. This accomplishment demonstrates the outstanding dedication and diligence of the team in such trying times due to COVID-19."

The testing team's charter is to make sure every piece of hardware and every piece of software that comprise Webb will work not only individually, but as a full observatory. Now that Webb is completely assembled, technicians and engineers have seized the unique opportunity to command the entire spacecraft and carry out the various stages of movement and deployment it will perform when in space. By folding and stowing the spacecraft into the same configuration when it launches from French Guiana, the engineering team can confidently move forward with final environmental testing (acoustics and vibration). After completing the series of tests, Webb will be deployed one last time on Earth for testing prior to preparing for launch.

"While operating under augmented personal safety measures because of the novel coronavirus (COVID-19), the project continues to make good progress and achieve significant milestones in preparation for upcoming environmental testing," said Gregory L. Robinson, the Webb program director at NASA Headquarters in Washington, D.C. "Team member safety continues to be our highest priority as the project takes precautions to protect Webb's hardware and continue with integration and testing. NASA will continually assess the project's schedule and adjust decisions as the situation evolves."

The James Webb Space Telescope will be the world's premier space science observatory when it launches in 2021. Webb will solve mysteries in our solar system, look beyond to distant worlds around other stars, and probe the mysterious structures and origins of our universe and our place in it. Webb is an international program led by NASA with its partners, ESA (European Space Agency) and the Canadian Space Agency.

Header image caption: A first look at NASA's James Webb Space Telescope fully stowed into the same configuration it will have when loaded into an Ariane V rocket for launch.  The image was taken from a webcam in the clean room at Northrop Grumman, in Redondo Beach, California. With staffing restrictions in place due to COVID-19, only essential staff are allowed in the clean room.  Image credit: Northrop Grumman

By Thaddeus Cesari
NASA Goddard Space Flight Center

Last Updated: May 14, 2020
Editor: Lynn Jenner



Цитата: undefinedTechnicians inspect a critical part of the James Webb Space Telescope known as the Deployable Tower Assembly

June 9, 2020

Tower Extension Test a Success for NASA's James Webb Space Telescope

Shown fully stowed, the James Webb Space Telescope's Deployable Tower Assembly.
Shown fully stowed, the James Webb Space Telescope's Deployable Tower Assembly that connects the upper and lower sections of the spacecraft will extend 48 inches (1.2 meters) after launch.
Credits: Northrop Grumman

To test the James Webb Space Telescope's readiness for its journey in space, technicians successfully commanded it to deploy and extend a critical part of the observatory known as the Deployable Tower Assembly.

The primary purpose of the deployable tower is to create a large gap between the upper part of the observatory that houses its iconic gold mirrors and scientific instruments, and the lower section known as the spacecraft bus which holds its comparatively warm electronics and propulsion systems. By creating a space between the two, it allows for Webb's active and passive cooling systems to bring its mirrors and sensors down to staggeringly cold temperatures required to perform optimal science.

Webb was designed to look for faint traces of infrared light, which is essentially heat energy. To detect the extremely faint heat signals of astronomical objects that are incredibly far away, the telescope itself has to be very cold and stable.

During the test, the tower was slowly extended 48 inches (1.2 meters) upward over the course of several hours, in the same maneuver it will perform once in space. Simulating the zero-gravity environment Webb will operate in, engineers employed an innovative series of pulleys, counterbalances and a special crane called a gravity-negation system that perfectly offloaded all of the effects of Earth's gravity on the observatory. Now that Webb is fully assembled, the difficulty of testing and properly simulating a zero-gravity environment has increased significantly.

"The Deployable Tower Assembly worked beautifully during the test," said Alphonso Stewart the Webb deployment systems lead for NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland. "It performed exactly as predicted, and from our expectations from previous tests before the full observatory was assembled. This was the first time that this part of Webb was tested in its flight-like configuration to the highest level of fidelity we possibly could. This test provides the opportunity to assess all interfaces and interactions between the instrument and bus sections of the observatory."

In addition to helping the observatory cool down, the Deployable Tower Assembly is also a big part of how Webb is able to pack into a much smaller size to fit inside an Ariane 5 rocket for launch. Webb is the largest space science observatory ever built, but to fit a telescope that big into a rocket, engineers had to design it to fold down into a much smaller configuration. Webb's Deployable Tower Assembly helps Webb to just barely fit inside a 17.8-foot (5.4-meter) payload fairing. Once in space, the tower will extend to give the rest of Webb's deployable parts, such as the sunshield and mirrors, the necessary amount of room needed to unpack and unfold into a fully functional infrared space observatory.

"We need to know that Webb will work the way we expect it to before we send it to space," said Stewart. "This is why we test, and when we do, we test as flight-like as possible. The way we send the commands to the spacecraft, the sequence, the individual sitting at the console, the communication that we use. We replicate all of these things to see if we are missing something, to see if there is something that needs to be changed, and to make sure that all of our planning to date has been correct."

Following augmented personal safety procedures due to COVID-19, the James Webb Space Telescope's Northrop Grumman team in California continued integration and testing work with significantly reduced on-site personnel and shifts. The NASA/Northrop Grumman team recently resumed near-full operations. NASA is evaluating potential impacts on the March 2021 launch date, and will continually assess the schedule and adjust decisions as the situation unfolds.

NASA's James Webb Space Telescope will be the world's premier space science observatory when it launches. Webb will solve mysteries in our solar system, look beyond to distant worlds around other stars, and probe the mysterious structures and origins of our universe and our place in it. Webb is an international program led by NASA with its partners, ESA (European Space Agency) and the Canadian Space Agency.

Header image caption: Technicians inspect a critical part of the James Webb Space Telescope known as the Deployable Tower Assembly after fully extending it in the same maneuver it will perform in once in space. Credit: Northrop Grumman

By Thaddeus Cesari
NASA Goddard Space Flight Center

Last Updated: June 9, 2020
Editor: Lynn Jenner


Цитата: undefined Stephen Clark @StephenClark1 6 мин. назад

NASA's Thomas Zurbuchen says JWST will not launch in March 2021, as previously scheduled, due to delays associated with the coronavirus pandemic. Work has continued at Northrop Grumman at reduced efficiency since March.

A schedule assessment is planned for next month.



ЦитатаЗапуск орбитального телескопа "Джеймс Уэбб" в очередной раз перенесли
МОСКВА, 17 июня. /ТАСС/. Запуск орбитального телескопа "Джеймс Уэбб" не состоится в запланированную ранее дату - 30 марта 2021 года. Испытания его компонентов сильно затормозила эпидемия коронавирусной инфекции, из-за которой персонал миссии временно сократился почти на половину. Об этом рассказал заместитель директора NASA по научным вопросам Томас Цурбухен на онлайн-заседании Совета по космическим исследованиям, пишет SpaceFlightNow.
"Мы абсолютно точно не запустим телескоп в марте", - сказал Цурбухен, отметив, что из-за COVID-19 NASA отложило некоторые наземные испытания "Джеймса Уэбба". Новую дату запуска объявят позже, однако NASA по-прежнему рассчитывает на то, что старт состоится в 2021 году с космодрома Куру во французской Гвиане.
 Скрытый текст:
Орбитальный телескоп "Джеймс Уэбб" должен заменить космическую обсерваторию "Хаббл". Его планируют вывести в точку Лагранжа L2 системы Земля-Солнце, которая находится на расстоянии примерно 1,6 млн км от Земли. Этот аппарат разрабатывают NASA, Канадское космическое агентство и Европейское космическое агентство.
Диаметр зеркала "Джеймса Уэбба" составит 6,5 метра. Каждая из 18 секций зеркала представляет собой равносторонний шестиугольник массой около 40 кг. Их изготовили из бериллия, который устойчив к сверхнизким температурам. Новый телескоп предназначен для изучения древнейших звезд и галактик Вселенной, а также поиска потенциально пригодных для жизни планет.


ЦитатаNASA определяется с источниками финансирования очередного переноса запуска обсерватории JWST
Как известно, постоянные проблемы и переносы сроков запуска космической обсерватории JWST достаточно сильно раздражают законодателей США, а, следовательно, больше всего NASA не хотелось в очередной раз просить на процесс его создания и выведения дополнительные средства. В связи с этим агентство объявило о том, что оно собирается найти необходимое финансирование в рамках существующих резервов своей программы. Здесь необходимо отметить, что ключевой особенностью процесса бюджетирования NASA является то, что они изначально выделяют изготовителям и разработчикам финансирование по уровню 50/50 (статистическая вероятность достаточности финансирования), а оставшиеся средства, которые доводят это соотношение до уровня 70/30 оставляют в качестве резерва. Следствием этого является то, что фактически у агентства всегда есть некоторый объем резервов, которые могут быть потрачены на не предвиденные обстоятельства.
Пока что остается неясным на сколько будет перенесен запуск, однако согласно последним заявлениям представителей NASA, это скорее всего будет несколько месяцев.
Сейчас предельная стоимость обсерватории определена в размере $8,8 млрд., пишет Ecoruspace.



Цитата: undefinedJuly 15, 2020

NASA to Provide Update on James Webb Space Telescope

The fully assembled James Webb Space Telescope with its sunshield and unitized pallet structures that will fold up around the telescope for launch.
Credits: NASA

NASA will host a media teleconference at 4:30 p.m. EDT Thursday, July 16, to provide an update on the status of the agency's James Webb Space Telescope, the world's next premier infrared space observatory and the largest, most complex space telescope for astronomy ever built. 
The media teleconference audio will stream live at:
Participants in the teleconference include: 
  • Stephen Jurczyk, NASA associate administrator 
  • Thomas Zurbuchen, NASA Science Mission Directorate associate administrator 
  • Gregory Robinson, NASA Webb program director 
  • Eric Smith, NASA Webb program scientist 


Once deployed, Webb will help solve mysteries in our solar system and look beyond to distant worlds around other stars, as well as probe the mysterious structures and origins of our universe. Webb is an international program led by NASA with its partners ESA (European Space Agency) and the Canadian Space Agency. 


Last Updated: July 15, 2020
Editor: Sean Potter


17.07.2020 01:27:03 #106 Последнее редактирование: 17.07.2020 01:31:12 от tnt22
ЦитатаThe Webb Telescope is Folded for Final Testing

 NASA Goddard

16 июл. 2020 г.


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hf5ZkRE7wVc (1:03)


17.07.2020 01:27:22 #107 Последнее редактирование: 17.07.2020 01:35:54 от tnt22

Цитата: undefinedJuly 16, 2020
RELEASE 20-072

NASA Announces New James Webb Space Telescope Target Launch Date

NASA's James Webb Space Telescope in the clean room at Northrop Grumman, Redondo Beach, California, in July 2020.
Credits: NASA/Chris Gunn

NASA now is targeting Oct. 31, 2021, for the launch of the agency's James Webb Space Telescope from French Guiana, due to impacts from the ongoing coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic, as well as technical challenges.

This decision is based on a recently completed schedule risk assessment of the remaining integration and test activities prior to launch. Previously, Webb was targeted to launch in March 2021.

"The perseverance and innovation of the entire Webb Telescope team has enabled us to work through challenging situations we could not have foreseen on our path to launch this unprecedented mission," said Thomas Zurbuchen, associate administrator for NASA's Science Mission Directorate at the agency's headquarters in Washington. "Webb is the world's most complex space observatory, and our top science priority, and we've worked hard to keep progress moving during the pandemic. The team continues to be focused on reaching milestones and arriving at the technical solutions that will see us through to this new launch date next year."

Testing of the observatory continues to go well at Northrop Grumman, the mission's main industry partner, in Redondo Beach, California, despite the challenges of the coronavirus pandemic. Prior to the pandemic's associated delays, the team made significant progress in achieving important milestones to prepare for launch in 2021.

As schedule margins grew tighter last fall, the agency planned to assess the progress of the project in April. This assessment was postponed due to the pandemic and was completed this week. The factors contributing to the decision to move the launch date include the impacts of augmented safety precautions, reduced on-site personnel, disruption to shift work, and other technical challenges. Webb will use existing program funding to stay within its $8.8 billion development cost cap.

"Based on current projections, the program expects to complete the remaining work within the new schedule without requiring additional funds," said Gregory Robinson, NASA Webb program director at the agency's headquarters. "Although efficiency has been affected and there are challenges ahead, we have retired significant risk through the achievements and good schedule performance over the past year. After resuming full operations to prepare for upcoming final observatory system-level environmental testing this summer, major progress continues towards preparing this highly complex observatory for launch."

The project team will continue to complete a final set of extremely difficult environmental tests of the full observatory before it will be shipped to the launch site in Kourou, French Guiana, situated on the northeastern coast of South America.

This week, the project successfully completed electrical testing of the observatory. The test highlighted a major milestone in preparation for the upcoming acoustics and vibration environmental tests of the full observatory that are scheduled to start in August. In addition to ongoing deployments, ground system testing of the fully integrated observatory has followed immediately afterwards. Ensuring that every element of Webb functions properly before it gets to space is critical to its success.

The design of a very large space telescope and highly sophisticated instruments was required to enable Webb to answer fundamental questions about our cosmic origins outlined in the National Academy of Sciences 2000 Decadal Survey.

"Webb is designed to build upon the incredible legacies of the Hubble and Spitzer space telescopes, by observing the infrared universe and exploring every phase of cosmic history," said Eric Smith, NASA Webb's program scientist at the agency's headquarters. "The observatory will detect light from the first generation of galaxies that formed in the early universe after the big bang and study the atmospheres of nearby exoplanets for possible signs of habitability."

NASA's James Webb Space Telescope is folded and ready for its final suite of testing. The James Webb Space Telescope will be the world's premier space science observatory and will solve mysteries in our solar system, look beyond to distant worlds around other stars, and probe the mysterious structures and origins of our universe and our place in it. Webb is an international program led by NASA with its partners, ESA (European Space Agency) and the Canadian Space Agency.
Credits: NASA

Early next year, Webb will be will folded "origami-style" for shipment to the launch site and fitted compactly inside Arianespace's Ariane 5 launch vehicle fairing, which is about 16 feet (5 meters) wide. On its journey to space, Webb will be the first mission to complete an intricate and technically challenging series of deployments - a critical part of Webb's journey to its orbit about one million miles from Earth. Once in orbit, Webb will unfold its delicate five-layered sunshield until it reaches the size of a tennis court. Webb will then deploy its iconic 6.5-meter primary mirror that will detect the faint light of far-away stars and galaxies. 

Webb is NASA's next great space science observatory, which will help in solving the mysteries of our solar system, looking beyond to distant worlds around other stars, and probing the mystifying structures and origins of our universe. Webb is an international program led by NASA, along with its partners ESA (European Space Agency) and the Canadian Space Agency.


Last Updated: July 16, 2020
Editor: Sean Potter


17.07.2020 01:32:05 #108 Последнее редактирование: 17.07.2020 01:41:24 от tnt22

ЦитатаНАСА отложило запуск телескопа "Джеймс Уэбб"
01:15 17.07.2020 (обновлено: 01:16 17.07.2020)

ВАШИНГТОН, 17 июл - РИА Новости. Запуск новейшего телескопа "Джеймс Уэбб" отложен до 31 октября 2021 года из-за пандемии коронавируса и технических проблем, сообщило НАСА в четверг.

"Из-за влияния продолжающейся пандемии коронавируса и технических сложностей планируем запуск космического телескопа имени Джеймса Уэбба на 31 октября 2021 года", - сообщило ведомство. Ранее запуск планировался на март 2021 года. Решение о переносе даты старта, отмечают в НАСА, основано на завершенном недавно анализе готовности проекта и необходимой к завершению предстартовой работы.

В НАСА пояснили, что одной из причин задержки стало вызванное пандемией сокращение числа занятых на строительстве телескопа сотрудников. Несмотря на задержку, надеются в НАСА, затраты на создание орбитального телескопа не будут увеличены и не превысят утвержденных бюджетом 8,8 миллиарда долларов.

"(Телескоп) "Уэбб" - самая сложная космическая обсерватория в мире - является сегодня приоритетом нашей научной работы", - заявил в связи с переносом запуска заместитель руководителя НАСА по науке Томас Зурбухен (Thomas Zurbuchen).

Как уточнили в НАСА, сейчас, несмотря на пандемию коронавируса, в Калифорнии в цехах компании Northrop Grumman продолжаются испытания новейшего телескопа.

О том, что запуск нового телескопа состоится не раньше марта 2021 года, стало известно в 2018 году, до этого планировалось, что он будет выведен на орбиту в мае 2020 года. В связи с переносом сроков запуска надзорный совет НАСА, проводивший оценку готовности миссии, заявил тогда, что задержка обусловлена ошибками и "чрезмерным оптимизмом".

Космический телескоп "Джеймс Уэбб" создается США во взаимодействии с канадскими и европейскими космическими специалистами. Изначально его предполагалось запустить в октябре 2018 года.



ЦитатаAug. 24, 2020

Ground Segment Testing a Success for NASA's James Webb Space Telescope

Testing teams have successfully completed a critical milestone focused on demonstrating that NASA's James Webb Space Telescope will respond to commands once in space. 

Known as a "Ground Segment Test," this is the first time commands to power on and test Webb's scientific instruments have been sent to the fully-assembled observatory from its Mission Operations Center at the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) in Baltimore, Maryland.

Since reliably communicating with Webb when in space is a mission-critical priority for NASA, tests like these are part of a comprehensive regimen designed to validate and ensure all components of the observatory will function in space with the complex communications networks involved in both sending commands, and downlinking scientific data. This test successfully demonstrated the complete end-to-end flow from planning the science Webb will perform to posting the scientific data to the community archive. 

Inside Webb's Mission Operations Center, Test Operator Jessica Hart is seen on-console at the Space Telescope Science Institute in Baltimore, Maryland monitoring test progress with social distancing protocol in place.
Credits: STSCI/Amanda Arvai

"This was the first time we have done this with both the actual Webb flight hardware and ground system. We've performed pieces of this test as the observatory was being assembled, but this is the first ever, and fully successful, end-to-end operation of the observatory and ground segment. This is a big milestone for the project, and very rewarding to see Webb working as expected," said Amanda Arvai, Deputy Division Head of Mission Operations at STScI in Maryland.

In this test, commands to sequentially turn on, move, and operate each of Webb's four scientific instruments were relayed from the Mission Operations Center. During the test, the observatory is treated as if it were a million miles away in orbit. To do this, the Flight Operations Team connected the spacecraft to the Deep Space Network, an international array of giant radio antennas that NASA uses to communicate with many spacecraft. However, since Webb isn't in space yet, special equipment was used to emulate the real radio link that will exist between Webb and the Deep Space Network when Webb is in orbit. Commands were then relayed through the Deep Space Network emulator to the observatory, which is currently inside a Northrop Grumman clean room in Redondo Beach, California.

Now that the observatory has been completely assembled, Webb teams are running full observatory level tests to ensure it is prepared for the rigors of liftoff.
Credits: Northrop Grumman

"This was also the first time we've demonstrated the complete cycle for conducting observations with the observatory's science instruments. This cycle starts with the creation of an observation plan by the ground system which is uplinked to the observatory by the Flight Operations Team. Webb's science instruments then performed the observations and the data was transmitted back to the Mission Operations Center in Baltimore, where the science was processed and distributed to scientists," said Arvai.

When Webb is in space, commands will flow from STScI in Baltimore to one of the three Deep Space Network locations --California, Spain, or Australia. Signals will then be sent to the orbiting observatory nearly one million miles away. Additionally the NASA's Tracking and Data Relay Satellite network, the Space Network in New Mexico, the European Space Agency's Malindi station in Kenya, and European Space Operations Centre in Germany will also aid in keeping a constant line of communication open with Webb at all times.

To complete the ground segment test a team of nearly 100 people worked together through the course of four consecutive days. Due to staffing restrictions in place due to the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic, only seven individuals were present inside the Mission Operations Center, with the rest working remotely to routinely monitor progress. Next up for Webb: observatory level acoustic and sine-vibration testing that will demonstrate that the assembled telescope is capable of surviving the rigors of launch by exposing it to similar conditions. 

Webb is NASA's next great space science observatory, which will help in solving the mysteries of our solar system, looking beyond to distant worlds around other stars, and probing the mystifying structures and origins of our universe. Webb is an international program led by NASA, along with its partners ESA (European Space Agency) and the Canadian Space Agency.

For more information about Webb, go to: https://www.nasa.gov/webb

By Thaddeus Cesari
NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center

Last Updated: Aug. 24, 2020
Editor: Lynn Jenner



Цитата25 АВГ, 12:17
Научные инструменты телескопа "Джеймс Уэбб" прошли полную проверку

ТАСС, 25 августа. Специалисты NASA завершили первый полный цикл наземных испытаний научных инструментов орбитальной обсерватории "Джеймс Уэбб". Тесты подтвердили их работоспособность, пишет Центр космических полетов NASA имени Годдарда (GSFC).

"Мы впервые воспользовались бортовыми системами "Джеймса Уэбба" и связанной с ним наземной инфраструктурой для того, чтобы отправлять на аппарат команды и получать от него данные. Во время сборки обсерватории мы уже испытывали некоторые приборы, а теперь мы впервые показали, что штатно работают все системы в целом", - рассказала Аманда Арвай, руководитель отдела космических операций в Институте космического телескопа (США).

Во время этих испытаний специалисты NASA отправили на телескоп набор команд, которые включили все четыре научных инструмента "Джеймса Уэбба" и заставили их решить несколько простых задач. Похожие задачи телескоп будет выполнять после того, как выйдет на орбиту, в точку Лагранжа L2, где притяжение Земли и Солнца уравновешивает друг друга.

В ближайшее время, как отметили специалисты NASA, должна начаться новая серия вибрационных и акустических тестов. Они покажут, сможет ли "Джеймс Уэбб" пережить нагрузки во время старта ракеты и его вывода на орбиту.

Строящийся телескоп "Джеймс Уэбб" (James Webb Space Telescope, JWST) должен заменить орбитальную обсерваторию "Хаббл", которая проработала на орбите уже более 30 лет. Диаметр зеркала "Джеймса Уэбба" - 6,5 м, кроме того, он будет оснащен более современными научными инструментами, благодаря которым телескоп впервые сможет получить детальные фотографии экзопланет.

Изначально руководство NASA планировало запустить новый аппарат в 2014 году. Однако перерасход средств и некоторые технические сложности несколько раз вынуждали руководство миссии переносить сроки его вывода в космос. В середине июля представители космического агентства вновь перенесли запуск с марта на октябрь 2021 года. На этот раз это было связано не только с техническими проблемами, но и с пандемией коронавирусной инфекции.