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Цитата Anatoly Zak @RussianSpaceWeb 4 маяHistory of the first effort to return soil samples from #Mars! The introduction: http://russianspaceweb.com/5m.html #5M
Цитата5M project: The first effort to return soil from Mars!Special report by Anatoly Zak; Editor: Alain ChabotIn the 1970s, the Soviet space industry made the first serious attempt to develop spacecraft capable of bringing a piece of Mars back to Earth. After several years of intensive efforts, the top-secret 5M project was abandoned in the face of numerous technical challenges and, like many other unrealized Soviet space dreams, it had remained under wraps for decades. This section will re-tell the story of the 5M project in unprecedented detail. Previous chapter: Soviet missions to MarsThe 5M project envisioned an unprecedented salvo launch of two Proton rockets within seconds of each other.HISTORY OF 5M PROJECTOrigin of the 5M projectThe successful Soviet effort to return soil samples from the Moon with robotic spacecraft at the beginning of the 1970s, inspired the nation's engineers to take on the much bigger challenge of getting a piece of Mars. According to the 5NM concept, the yet-to-be-operational N1 or N-1M super-heavy rocket would launch a 98-ton behemoth in September 1975 on a round trip to the Red Planet. Retailoring 5M from the N1 rocket to ProtonAfter the cancellation of the N1 development in 1974, the Mars sample return mission had to be downsized to fit onto the much smaller Proton rocket. To make it possible, the mission was initially split among three Proton boosters...Final design of the 5M mission When the three-launch scenario proved to be too complicated, the 5M mission was drastically re-designed to work with just two Protons. The resulting two-spacecraft 5M complex consisted of the "passive" 11S824M space tug carrying the Martian vehicle and the 11S86 "active" space tug.Development and cancellationFrom the outset, the 5M project faced multiple technical challenges. The dismal success rate of early Soviet Mars probes left little hope that a far more complex two-way mission to the Red Planet had a realistic chance to succeed. After a huge expense of funds and engineering effort, the 5M project was cancelled on Nov. 17, 1977.(to be continued)5M FLIGHT SCENARIO Launch and rendezvousThe extremely complex flight scenario for the 5M mission was unlike anything else attempted in the space exploration history. The dual mission would begin with a salvo launch of two Proton rockets from near-by launch pads in Tyuratam. Cruising to MarsThe 5M mission would spend around 11 months cruising from the Earth to Mars. Nearly 30 days before approaching the Red Planet, all the batteries of the cruise module, the landing platform and the return vehicle would be fully charged and ready for the ultimate action.Landing on MarsOn approach to Mars, the lander would separate from the cruise module. The 5M spacecraft would land on Mars using only its umbrella braking device followed by the rocket-assisted descent. No parachute system typical for all other Mars missions, was to be used in the 5M mission scenario.Operations on the surfaceOnce on the surface, the lander would have to conduct the drilling and gathering of samples, followed by the even more complex task of determining its position on the planet, in order to chart its journey back to Earth.Return to Earth and landingOnce all surface operations had been completed, the return rocket would blast off from the lander on the surface of Mars. The ascent to the Martian orbit would be conducted in two rocket-propelled phases separated by an unpowered coasting flight.
ЦитатаOrigin of the Soviet Mars sample-return project The successful Soviet effort to return soil samples fr om the Moon with robotic spacecraft at the beginning of the 1970s inspired the nation's engineers to take on the much bigger challenge of getting a piece of Mars. According to the 5NM concept, a giant N1 or N-1M rocket would launch a 98-ton behemoth in September 1975 on a round trip to the Red Planet, resulting in the delivery of a soil sample from the mysterious Red Planet.Previous chapter: Mars sample return missions Flight scenario for the Soviet Mars sample return mission projected for launch in 1975.The earliest Soviet plans for delivering Martian soil naturally grew out of similar missions to the Moon developed in the second half of the 1960s at the NPO Lavochkin design bureau led by Georgy Babakin. At the beginning of 1970, soon after the lunar sample return missions had reached the launch pad, Babakin directed his engineers to prepare a technical proposal for a Martian sample return mission. By the summer of the same year, the team had already formulated a concept of the spacecraft designated 5NM. According to the plan, the yet-to-be-operational N1 or N-1M super-heavy rocket would launch a 98-ton behemoth into low-Earth orbit in September 1975. From there, the two-stage booster would accelerate a 20-ton spacecraft on its way to Mars.The spacecraft itself included a 3,600-kilogram Earth-to-Mars cruise stage built around a thorus-shaped instrument module inherited from the Mars-71 project and a spherical propellant tank originally developed for the Mars-69 vehicle.The cruise stage had its own propulsion system to perform trajectory corrections on the way to Mars. The vehicle would put itself on a Mars flyby trajectory to serve as a communications relay station between the lander and ground control. The second module of the spacecraft was the 16-ton lander equipped with a deployable aerodynamic brake consisting of 30 petals attached to a 6.5-meter central cone. After the spacecraft had entered an interplanetary trajectory, the petals of the heat shield would be deployed, forming an asymmetrical aero-shell structure with a diameter of 11 meters, which would help the lander to glide while slowing down in the weak Martian atmosphere. The flight control system responsible for the landing was housed in the instrument module behind the aero-shell. The instruments included a velocity measuring system using the doppler principle, an altimeter, radio and power-supply systems.When the descending lander slowed down to 200 meters per second, the heat shield would be discarded. The final descent to the Martian surface would be conducted with the help of four variable-thrust rocket engines fed from four spherical tanks. Once on the surface, the mission control would command the lander via a decimeter-frequency communication system to conduct panoramic imaging of the surrounding landscape and zero-in on objects, which would look most promising to the scientists. The departure from Mars was planned around three days after the arrival, as the spacecraft autonomously established its precise location on the Martian surface. On top of the lander sat the two-stage Earth-return rocket, which included a 750-kilogram Mars-to-Earth cruise stage, whose design was based on the Venera-4 and Venera-6 spacecraft. It was topped with the 15-kilogram landing capsule, which could carry 200 grams of Martian soil back to Earth.The Earth-return rocket would first enter a 500-kilometer Martian orbit with a period of 12 hours, wh ere it would remain for 10 months, waiting for a favorable mutual position between Earth and Mars.Upon approaching Earth, the landing capsule would separate from the cruise stage and descent through the atmosphere. When it had slowed down to 200 meters per second, the capsule would release its parachute. After touchdown, the capsule would deploy a radar beacon to help the search teams.Similarly to the Soviet lunar exploration program, the Martian sample return mission would be preceded to the Red Planet by a rover, scheduled for launch in 1973. It would be delivered to Mars with the 4NM spacecraft, which would test key technologies of the Mars landing, most importantly, the deployable gliding aero-shell. (633)
Цитата Anatoly Zak @RussianSpaceWeb 2 ч.2 часа назад The 5M Mars sample return mission | PART 4: Launch and rendezvous in the Earth's orbit (another missing page of space exploration history): http://russianspaceweb.com/5m-scenario-launch.html ...
ЦитатаThe 5M flight scenario: Launch and rendezvousThe extremely complex flight scenario proposed for the 5M mission was unlike anything else attempted in space exploration. The dual mission would begin with a salvo launch of two Proton rockets from adjoining launch pads in Tyuratam.Previous chapter: Final design of the 5M Mars sample return mission The dual 5M spacecraft in the Earth's orbit after the deployment of the TZU heat shield.Flight scenario: Launch and rendezvousThe first UR-500K (a.k.a Proton-K) rocket of the 5M project would blast off with the 20.94-ton Passive Orbital Block, OBP, (also designated 11S824M), including the 8.7-ton spacecraft. At the conclusion of the firing of the three booster stages of the Proton and a short engine burn of the 11S824M space tug, the OBP stack would enter an initial 200-kilometer orbit around the Earth.In the meantime, the second Proton-K rocket would follow with its blastoff just 20 seconds after the first, carrying the 20.45-ton "active" 11S86 space tug, or OBA, aiming to enter a very similar orbit around 10 kilometers away from the OBP stack.During the first revolution of the mission around the Earth, between 50 and 60 minutes after the liftoff of the two rockets, the "active" OBA vehicle, carrying a larger fuel supply, would have to rendezvous and link up with its "passive" OBP counterpart.Immediately after the successful docking, the 5M spacecraft would deploy its giant TZU umbrella, needed for the eventual descent in the Martian atmosphere, while the Igla rendezvous section and the orbital maneuvering section, which had been used during docking, would be discarded to save mass before the upcoming engine firing. Also, during the first revolution, the Soviet ground stations, would have to establish the exact orbital parameters of the assembled vehicle, so that during the second orbit, they could transmit settings to the "active" vehicle with the timeline for the first maneuver. At the right moment, the "active" tug would fire its engine to turn the circular parking orbit into an ellipse extending between 3,000 and 3,700 kilometers above the Earth's surface. It would take the spacecraft between 2 and 2.2 hours to make a single revolution in this orbit. During that maneuver, the "active" space tug would also pump up to 7,300 kilograms of its extra propellant into the "passive" vehicle.Shortly before the second maneuver, the "active" space tug and the entire docking mechanism connecting the pair would be discarded, again to save mass for the next maneuver.Upon completion of another revolution, the "passive" vehicle would fire its engine at the pericenter of its new orbit, finally inserting the spacecraft on the 11-month journey to Mars.Two weeks after the launch of the first 5M mission, another pair of UR-500K rockets would blast off delivering a twin version of the Mars sample return spacecraft. In the case of the 1979 launch window, the first spacecraft would depart Earth on or soon after October 30, the backup mission would lift off on November 14.
ЦитатаThe 5M flight scenario: Cruising to MarsDepending on the time of its launch, which could be in 1979, 1981 or 1984, the Soviet Mars sample return mission would have to spend between nine and 11 months in transit from the Earth's orbit to the Red Planet.Previous chapter: Launch of the 5M Mars sample return mission The 5M spacecraft departs Earth's orbit on its way to Mars. From the publisher: Pace of our development depends primarily on the level of support from our readers! According to the preliminary design of the 5M project, the Mars-sampling spacecraft would need a total increase in velocity from 3.72 to 3.77 kilometers per second to leave the Earth's orbit and head toward Mars, depending on the year of the launch.In any case, a total of three autonomous trajectory corrections were planned on the way between the Earth and Mars to ensure accurate arrival at the Red Planet. They would deliver a total of 115 meters per second in velocity change.Around 30 days before approaching Mars, all batteries of the trajectory module, TB, the landing platform and the return vehicle had to be fully charged.Around 55,000 kilometers from Mars, the 5M spacecraft was to activate its autonomous navigation system in order to make the trajectory measurements necessary for the autonomous trajectory correction ensuring precise entry into the atmosphere of Mars. Once the maneuver was completed, the trajectory module, TB, and the landing module, PB, would separate from each other. Around 45 minutes after the separation, the TB module would conduct another maneuver delivering around 200 meters per second to enter a Mars flyby trajectory, missing the surface by around 2,500 kilometers. During that period for around 38 minutes, the TB module would relay the telemetry data from the lander back to mission control on Earth, as the lander conducted reentry and landing on Mars.If the 5M mission was launched in the fall of 1979, the lander would reach Mars between Sept. 17 and 24, 1980. A launch at the end of 1981 would result in the Mars arrival between Oct. 6 and 12, 1982. In case of a January 1984 launch, the Mars landing would take place between Oct. 24 and 30, 1984. The 5M spacecraft conducts orbit correction upon its approach to Mars. Specifications of the Earth-Mars-Earth trajectory of the 5M mission with three launch windows in 1979, 1981 and 1984:-197919811984Launch from Earth1979 Oct. 30 - Nov. 141981 Nov. 27 - Dec. 121984 Jan. 8-23Cruise duration of the 3M spacecraft314-322 days304-313 days281-290 daysDate of arrival at Mars1980 Sept. 17-241982 Oct. 6-121984 Oct. 24-30Duration of active operations on the surface of Mars2-3 days2-3 days2-3 daysDuration of presence in the orbit of MarsApproximately 350 daysApproximately 420 daysApproximately 460 daysDate of departure from Martian orbit1981 August - September1983 October - November1986 January - FebruaryDuration of the flight from Mars to EarthApproximately 340 daysApproximately 316 daysApproximately 224 daysDate of arrival at Earth1982 July - August1984 September - October1986 August - SeptemberTotal mission durationApproximately 1,030 daysApproximately 1,030 daysApproximately 980 days Velocity specifications of the Earth-Mars-Earth trajectory of the 5M mission with three launch windows in 1979, 1981 and 1984:-197919811984Velocity (delta V) for Earth departure3.72 kilometers per second3.72 kilometers per second3.77 kilometers per secondVelocity for separation of the Trajectory Section, TB, (cruise stage)200 meters per second200 meters per second200 meters per secondTotal velocity for the Earth-Mars trajectory corrections115 meters per second115 meters per second115 meters per secondMars atmosphere entry velocity5.75 kilometers per second6.00 kilometers per second6.40 kilometers per secondTotal velocity change for Mars orbit corrections150 meters per second150 meters per second150 meters per secondVelocity for Mars orbit escape (500-kilometer; 12-hour period)1,030 kilometers per second0.985 kilometers per second1,030 kilometers per secondTotal velocity for the Mars-Earth trajectory corrections100 meters per second100 meters per second100 meters per secondVelocity for entry into the Earth's atmosphere12.35 kilometers per second12.57 kilometers per second12.10 kilometers per second