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Lucy - Atlas V 401 (AV-082) - Canaveral SLC-41 - 16.10.2021 - 12:34 ДМВ

Автор instml, 04.01.2017 22:55:39

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January 04, 2017 

NASA Selects Two Missions to Explore the Early Solar System

NASA has selected two missions that have the potential to open new windows on one of the earliest eras in the history of our solar system – a time less than 10 million years after the birth of our sun. The missions, known as Lucy and Psyche, were chosen fr om five finalists and will proceed to mission formulation, with the goal of launching in 2021 and 2023, respectively.



Хм, НАСА явно выбрала миссии, обещающие самые интересные фотки...

Жаль учёных - а как обыватель, я рад, конечно.


ЦитироватьНАСА организует две миссии для изучения астероидов и солнечной системы
07:41 05.01.2017
МОСКВА, 5 янв — РИА Новости. США намерены организовать миссию по изучению астероидов для проведения детального анализа солнечной системы, сообщает НАСА.
 "НАСА выбрала две миссии, которые потенциально могут приоткрыть завесу одной из наиболее ранних эр истории нашей солнечной системы — менее чем 10 миллионов лет после рождения нашего Солнца", — говорится в сообщении.
Космический робот "Люси" (Lucy) планируется запустить в октябре 2021 года. Ожидается, что он достигнет первой цели, главного пояса астероидов, к 2025 году. С 2027 по 2033 "Люси" изучит шесть Троянских астероидов Юпитера.
Вторая миссия, названная "Психеей" (Psyche), началом которой может стать 2023 год, изучит одно из наиболее интригующих явлений главного пояса — гигантский астероид, известный как "16 Психея".
"Были когда-то и мы рысаками!!!"


Lucy PI Hal Levison is a scientist at the Southwest Research Institute in Boulder, Colorado. SwRI will lead the overall science investigation. NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center is providing mission management, systems engineering, and safety and mission assurance, and the spacecraft will be built by Lockheed Martin.

Psyche's science team is located at Arizona State University; as is PI Lindy Elkins-Tanton. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California manages the Psyche mission. The spacecraft structure will be built by Space Systems / Loral.

When practical, NASA likes to use flight-proven hardware—often referred to as heritage technology. There are multiple benefits; it's usually cheaper if you don't have to develop new components from scratch, and it's always good to know that something has already flown in space successfully.

Lucy uses enhanced versions of science instruments that flew on the New Horizons and OSIRIS-REx missions, and some of Lucy's team members also come from those programs.

The Psyche spacecraft itself is very Dawn-like in appearance, and uses solar-electric propulsion—a technology vetted thoroughly during Dawn's ten-year mission.



Однако на солнечных батареях на 5-6 а.е. от Солнца!



В бюджете Дискавери - безусловно!

Есть ли свежие пдфки по миссии?


Миссии только пролётные без выхода на орбиту какого-либо астеройдов


Levison said that an extended mission for Lucy could include additional flybys of Trojan and main belt asteroids, one of which, he said, is the asteroid Psyche.

"We should be able to do more at the end of the mission," he said, "if NASA agrees."



А каковы относительные скорости пролётов, особенно в точках либрации?
Вообще, исследовать солнечную систему автоматами - это примерно то же самое, что посылать робота вместо себя в фитнес, качаться.Зомби. Просто Зомби (с)
Многоразовость - это бяка (с) Дмитрий Инфан


Очевидно, близка к той, что  была у Галилео или Юноны относительно Юпитера в момент входа в его сферу действия


KinetX to help with NASA mission to explore asteroids

NASA has sel ected Tempe-based KinetX Aerospace to coordinate navigation and participate in the mission design team for the Lucyspacecraft expected to launch in October 2021. The spacecraft will make its first practice run by April 2025, and complete its mission around February 2034.

Named after the early hominid fossil "Lucy" discovered in Ethiopia in the 1970s, this Lucyis searching for fossils of a different type.

"NASA has an overall goal of trying to understand how the solar system was formed. To do that it is important to find objects that haven't changed much," said KinetX President and CEO Kjell Stakkestad. "The chance to see these objects up close, rather than looking at a Hubble telescope assessment fr om a distance, is super important to verify whether scientists have their theories correct."

Stakkestad said drawing a roadmap for a space mission like Lucyis not trivial. He compared it to "a game of cosmic billiards."

"It's not like driving to the store, wh ere you can start and stop. You have to try to take into account gravity, and try to slingshot around and line yourself up in the right time and place so you can head to the next body," he said.

The bodies in question are asteroids know as "Trojans" which orbit the planet Jupiter. According to a fact sheet assembled by Lucy's principle scientific investigator H.F. Levinson, the mission "will perform an exhaustive landmark investigation that visits six of these primitive asteroids," and use "high-heritage remote sensing instruments to map the geology, surface color and composition, thermal and other physical properties of its targets at close range."

Coming within a few kilometers of asteroids is complicated by the fact that their exact position is unknown, and that it takes around 30 minutes for a radio signal to travel between the spacecraft and the KinetX navigation team on earth. Stakkestad said that Lucymust have its flight path pre-programmed, and then it will adjust itself with sensors to avoid colliding with its targets or missing them completely.

The project budget overall is about $500 million. Arizona will probably get around $10 million to $15 million of that, according to Stakkestad. In addition to KinetX's involvement, members of the science team are from both Arizona State University and the University of Arizona.

"Arizona has a remarkable capability for space work," he said.

"What's really interesting is that Lucy is a Discovery class mission, and two were selected this year. One is Lucyand one is called Psyche, and the principle investigator for Psyche is fr om ASU. There aren't many states that can say they have two missions going like that."

Stakkestad said that Lucywould add to KinetX's growing wealth of deep-space experience and that would help win future NASA contracts. He sees a bright future for Arizona as a leader in space exploration, but that future is not without obstacles.

Although the aerospace industry provides high-paying jobs, "We can't seem to get that knowledge out to the government to explain why they need to work hard with companies to grow that capability. Most states don't have anything close to what Arizona has," Stakkestad said.

He also said he sometimes has trouble recruiting talent to the state.

"I know were having this problem, and I'm sure other companies are, too. The education system here is so horrible, were 50th out of 50 states on what we spend on students," he said. "When I try to entice people to come and work on exciting projects here, if they're younger people with a young family, they are really hesitant to come."

Despite the challenges, Stakkestad is optimistic about the future of KinetX.

"Lucygives us the ability to figure out complex technologies to solve problems, and that knowledge can be used for commercial space programs or sometimes other programs that aren't necessarily in space. I look at winning these contracts as providing engineering experience so we can solve anyone's problems," he said.



January 6, 2017

Johns Hopkins APL Provides Key Instruments for NASA's New Discovery Missions

Scientists and engineers at the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory will provide instruments on NASA's two newest missions, Lucy and Psyche, which will explore, respectively, six of Jupiter's Trojan asteroids and 16 Psyche, a rare and primarily metal asteroid in the main asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter.

Both Discovery-class missions were sel ected to explore these relics from the earliest history of the solar system, less than 10 million years after the birth of our sun.

APL will provide the "eagle eyes" for Lucy by developing a high-resolution telescopic camera for the mission, which will perform the first reconnaissance of the Trojans, a population of primitive asteroids orbiting in tandem with Jupiter.

Lucy — named for the famous prehistoric human fossil — will launch in 2021 to study six of these asteroids. Scientists say understanding the differences between the Trojans will provide unique and critical knowledge of planetary origins, the source of volatiles and organics on the terrestrial planets, and the evolution of the planetary system as a whole.

The APL instrument is the next-gen version of the Long Range Reconnaissance Imager (LORRI) currently flying on the New Horizons spacecraft, which provided the first detailed, close-up views of Pluto and its moons in July 2015. Among other capabilities, the L'LORRI camera — the first "L" added to mark its role on the Lucy mission — will produce Lucy's highest spatial resolution surface maps, which will allow scientists to chart the asteroids' geology and estimate surface ages.

"Lucy is an exciting mission at the frontier of planetary science," said APL's Hal Weaver, the L'LORRI principal investigator. "We're excited about the opportunity to provide a camera with proven heritage that will shed light on these critical links to the solar system's early history."

For Psyche, APL will provide the Psyche Gamma Ray and Neutron Spectrometer (GRNS), which will detect, measure, and map 16 Psyche's elemental composition. The instrument is based on the APL-developed GRNS flown on the successful MESSENGER (MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging) Discovery-class mission.

Unlike most asteroids, which are made of rock and ices, 16 Psyche appears to be the exposed nickel-iron core of a protoplanet, one of the building blocks of the sun's planetary system. GRNS will test this hypothesis by measuring 16 Psyche's elemental composition. If confirmed, these observations will be the first to directly characterize the composition of a planetary core, providing insights into the inaccessible cores of the terrestrial planets, including Earth and Mars.

"Psyche is one of the few remaining unexplored frontiers of our solar system," said APL's David Lawrence, the Psyche GRNS instrument and investigation lead. "The data returned by APL's GRNS will be foundational for revealing the mysteries of this fascinating world. Our entire GRNS team is grateful to play a key role in this exciting mission." Lawrence's team, which includes lead engineer John Goldsten and instrument scientist Patrick Peplowski, brings its experience fr om the successful MESSENGER GRNS to the Psyche mission.

APL's long heritage of space technology innovation reaches back more than five decades, and includes building 69 spacecraft and more than 150 specialized instruments. In addition to the New Horizons LORRI, the APL instrument roster includes the Magnetospheric Imaging Instrument on the Cassini spacecraft, which provided the first images of Saturn's magnetic field; the CRISM hyperspectral imager on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, which contributed to the discovery of water across the red planet; and the Low Energy Charged Particle detector on Voyager, which was critical to determining that Voyager 1 had left the solar system.

The Psyche mission will launch in 2023 and will arrive at the asteroid 16 Psyche in 2030. Arizona State University is the principal investigator institution; NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory will build the spacecraft and manage the mission. The Lucy mission will launch in October 2021 and fly by its targets between 2025 and 2033. In all, Lucy will study six Trojans and one main belt asteroid. Southwest Research Institute is the principal investigator institution and will lead the science investigation. NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center will provide overall mission management, systems engineering, and safety and mission assurance.



ЦитироватьNASA приступает к реализации проекта Lucy по исследованию сразу семи астероидов-"троянцев"
ВАШИНГТОН, 2 ноября. /ТАСС/. Американское космическое ведомство NASA приступает к реализации проекта Lucy ("Люси" ) по изучению сразу семь астероидов нашей Солнечной системы. Об этом сообщило интернет-издание Space.com со ссылкой на одного из руководителей данного проекта - астронома из Юго-Западного исследовательского института Гарольда Левисона.
"До сих пор эта миссия была лишь на бумаге, - приводит издание его высказывания, сделанные в четверг. - Сейчас нам дали добро на изготовление зонда".
Миссия и сам аппарат получили название в честь представительницы рода австралопитеков Люси, скелет которой в ноябре 1974 года обнаружил в Эфиопии американский палеоантрополог Дональд Джохансон. По мнению ряда ученых, Homo sapiens или человек разумный ведет свои корни от австралопитеков, отделившись от общего с ними корня примерно 3 млн лет назад.
NASA считает, что результаты исследования астероидов, в частности так называемых троянских, которые кружат вокруг Солнца на орбите Юпитера, будут способствовать улучшению представления о формировании Солнечной системы.
Астероидам, которые делят орбиту с планетой-гигантом и находятся у "точки Лагранжа" в системе Земля-Солнце, еще в начале прошлого века стали давать названия в честь героев Троянской войны (рубеж XIII - XII веков до н.э.), описанных древнегреческим поэтом Гомером в "Илиаде" и "Одиссее". В "точках Лагранжа" на тело с малой массой не действуют никакие другие силы, кроме гравитационных со стороны двух более массивных тел, и оно может оставаться неподвижным относительно этих тел.
Продолжительное путешествие
Предполагается, что запуск зонда массой около 1,4 тонны будет осуществлен в октябре 2021 года, и миссия в целом продлится 12 лет - по 2033 год. По пути к "троянцам" аппарат сначала пролетит в апреле 2025 года близ небольшого астероида (52246) Дональдджохансон, открытого в марте 1981 года. Он находится в главном поясе астероидов между орбитами Марса и Юпитера.
Затем в 2027 - 2028 годах "Люси" облетит разные по форме астероиды (3548 )  Эврибат, (15094) Полимела, (11351) Левк и (21900) Ор. Кроме того, в 2033 году зонду предстоит изучить бинарный астероид (617) Патрокл-Менетий.
Закончил работу другой зонд
Между тем NASA сообщило в четверг о потере связи со своей автоматической станцией Dawn, выведенной в космос в сентябре 2007 году с целью исследования главного пояса астероидов.
"После того, как Центр управления полетом исключил другие возможные причины отсутствия связи, специалисты пришли к выводу, что на борту станции закончилось топливо для двигателей ориентации. Dawn более не способен сохранять положение, при котором его антенны направлены на Землю для поддержания связи с ЦУП, и не может развернуться так, чтобы его аккумуляторы заряжались от солнечных панелей", - указали представители ведомства.
С июля 2011 года по сентябрь 2012 года "Заря" изучала один из крупнейших астероидов - Весту, а затем карликовую планету Цереру. Поскольку NASA не планировало осуществлять спуск зонда на поверхность Цереры, он останется на орбите вокруг нее по меньшей мере на ближайшие 20 лет.


ЦитироватьFossils of Planet Formation: Lucy Mission Teaser

 NASA Goddard

21 окт. 2019 г.

Beyond the asteroid belt are "fossils of planet formation" known as the Trojan asteroids. These primitive bodies share Jupiter's orbit in two vast swarms, and may hold clues to the formation and evolution of our solar system. Now, NASA is preparing to explore the Trojan asteroids for the first time. A mission called Lucy will launch in 2021 and visit seven asteroids over the course of twelve years - one in the main belt and six in Jupiter's Trojan swarms.

Lucy is named for the famous hominid fossil that shed light on our early human ancestors; by making the first exploration of the Trojan asteroids, the Lucy mission will improve our understanding of the early solar system, and be the first to uncover these fossils of planet formation.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4ZHCwSaBzd8https://www.youtube.com/embed/4ZHCwSaBzd8 (1:09)