RLV-TD

Автор Salo, 07.01.2015 00:26:28

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Salo

http://www.livemint.com/Politics/rQIXOa8IJ68k5q9ZZYzlNM/Isro-to-carry-out-wingedreusable-rocket-tech-demo.html
ЦитироватьFirst Published: Mon, Jan 05 2015. 03 11 PM IST
Isro to carry out winged-reusable rocket tech demo
Isro will carry out the technology demonstration of the reusable launch vehicle in March
Nikita Mehta

Isro will test if the 12-tonne vehicle can reach five times the speed of sound, whether it can re-enter the atmosphere and land on the sea using its computer system. Photo: AFP

Mumbai: Satellites are typically deployed by expensive rockets which disintegrate in phases en route to space; however, the Indian Space Research Organisation (Isro) is working on developing the technology for a winged rocket that can be used repeatedly, a senior official said.
Isro will carry out the technology demonstration of the reusable launch vehicle in March, the official said.
Space vehicles are costly to build and launch, and making them reusable could help reduce space mission costs.
"The structure that makes a rocket has to be such that it should have 98% propellant and 2% structure. Only then reusability is possible. Today's technology does not allow you to go to that level as 5% to 10% will be the mass of the structure and around 90% will be the propellant," said S. Somanath, associate director of Isro's Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre (VSSC).
"But then, new ideas are coming up, SpaceX is working on a reusable launch vehicle, but nobody is sure if in the next 10 years, reusable vehicles will be a reality," Somanth added.
VSSC is trying to develop a Winged Reusable Launch Vehicle Technology Demonstrator (RLV-TD) which will act as a flying tester to assess hypersonic flight, autonomous landing, powered cruise flight and hypersonic flight using air-breathing propulsion. Isro is currently integrating the flight model.
In the technology demonstrator, Isro will test if the 12-tonne vehicle can reach five times the speed of sound, whether it can re-enter the atmosphere and land on the sea using its computer system.
To be sure, this will be a technological demonstration and the tested vehicle will not be reusable. The VSSC director explained that take-off will be vertical like a rocket, and landing will be like that of an aircraft.
 "The reusable launch vehicle is important because space orbiting currently costs us $5,000 per km. That kind of money, space exploration and commercial space activities, are not possible," explained Somanth.
"We want to come down to $500, and the one problem here is hardware. Propellant is not that costly, but the hardware is extremely costly and needs to be reused for space travel to be affordable," he added. Attempts at developing an operational reusable rocket launcher have not been quite successful so far. Till now, only two vehicles have come close to being a reusable launch vehicle—one being the space shuttle developed by the US, and the other, Buran developed by Russia. Both of these were only partially usable.
"Были когда-то и мы рысаками!!!"

Salo

#1
http://www.militaryparitet.com/ttp/data/ic_ttp/7336/
ЦитироватьИндия создаст многоразовый космической корабль массой 12 т
7 января 2015 г.
09:11

«Военный Паритет». В настоящее время Индийская организация космических исследований (Indian Space Research Organisation - ISRO) присматривается к возможности создания многоразовых космических кораблей «для недорогого доступа в космос», сообщает defencenews.in 6 января.
 
В марте этого года  космическое агентство продемонстрирует технологии космоплана, который будет летать как самолет. Ракета-носитель повторного использования (reusable launch vehicle - RLV) позволит снизить стоимость вывода одного килограмма полезной нагрузки до 500 долл США вместо 5000 сегодня, говорит заместитель директора Космического центра Викрам-Сарабхай (Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre) С. Соманаф (S Somanath).
 
Агентство намерено разработать многоразовый челнок массой 12 т, который может развить скорость 5М и совершить посадку на море с помощью компьютерной системы управления. Тяжелая ракета-носитель GSLV MkIII успешно испытана в декабре 2014 года. Считается, что ракетное топливо не такое дорогое, но очень дорого стоит орбитальная ступень, тем не менее, настоящим прорывом будет как многоразовая РН, так и возвращаемый космический челнок, созданных по концепции двухступенчатого выхода в космос (Two Stage To Orbit - TSTO), считает агентство.
 

"Были когда-то и мы рысаками!!!"

Димитър

Молодци!
Питаются что-то реально делать!

Salo

http://www.newindianexpress.com/nation/ISRO-to-Carry-out-RLV-TD-Test-Flight/2015/03/05/article2698679.ece
ЦитироватьISRO to Carry out RLV-TD Test Flight  
 
 By Express News Service
 Published: 05th March 2015 06:00 AM
 Last Updated: 05th March 2015 03:22 AM
 
NEW DELHI:  In what could bring down the cost of access to space, the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) will carry out a test flight of Reusable Launch Vehicle- Technology Demonstrator (RLV-TD) by second quarter of 2015 which will bring down the cost of satellite launches in India.
The cost of access to space is the major deterrent in space exploration and space utilisation and a reusable launch vehicle is the unanimous solution to achieve low-cost, reliable and on-demand space access.
Technology Demonstrator winged body vehicle weighing 1.5 tonnes will be lifted to a height of 70 km using solid booster, thus attaining five times the speed of sound, Minister of State in the Prime Minister's Office Jitendra Singh said in reply to a question in the Lok Sabha.
"Development of Reusable Launch Vehicles is a technical challenge and it involves development of many cutting edge technologies. The magnitude of cost reduction depends on development and realisation of fully reusable launch vehicle and its degree of reusability," said Singh.
"Были когда-то и мы рысаками!!!"

Salo

Замечательно всё, начиная с заголовка:
http://tass.ru/kosmos/1807218
ЦитироватьИндия до конца года планирует испытать прототип собственной ракеты-носителя
 
 Космос
 4 марта, 14:08 UTC+3
 Пуск должен состояться с единственного в стране космодрома на острове Шрихарикота вблизи побережья штата Андхра-Прадеш  
 
НЬЮ-ДЕЛИ, 4 марта. /Корр. ТАСС Александр Антипин/. Индийская организация космических исследований (ИСРО) проведет в течение полугода испытания прототипа ракеты- носителя многоразового использования собственной разработки. Об этом говорится в полученном сегодня корр. ТАСС официальном сообщении ИСРО.  
 
"Прототип массой 1,5 тонны будет поднят на высоту в 70 км при помощи твердотопливного ускорителя и достигнет скорости до 5 Маха (в 5 раз превышать скорость звука)", - добавила организация, уточнив, что аппарат должен приводниться в море.
В ходе испытаний ученые рассчитывают проверить теплозащитную систему, систему управления, авионику и аэродинамические характеристики аппарата на гиперзвуковой скорости.
Сроки конструирования ракеты-носителя и оценочную стоимость проекта Индийская организация космических исследований уточнять не стала.
Пуск должен состояться с единственного в стране космодрома на острове Шрихарикота вблизи побережья штата Андхра-Прадеш.
Индия успешно проводит коммерческие запуски на ракете- носителе, предназначенном для вывода небольших спутников на полярную орбиту (серии PSLV) с массой полезной нагрузки до двух тонн. Они доставили на орбиту 40 иностранных спутников.
"Были когда-то и мы рысаками!!!"

triage

#5
ЦитироватьSalo пишет:
http://www.militaryparitet.com/ttp/data/ic_ttp/7336/
....
Агентство намерено разработать многоразовый челнок массой 12 т, который может развить скорость 5М и совершить посадку на море с помощью компьютерной системы управления.
....
и более позднее
ЦитироватьSalo пишет:
http://tass.ru/kosmos/1807218
....
"Прототип массой 1,5 тонны будет поднят на высоту в 70 км при помощи твердотопливного ускорителя и достигнет скорости до 5 Маха (в 5 раз превышать скорость звука)", - добавила организация, уточнив, что аппарат должен приводниться в море.
....
По первому сообщению - это действительно многоразовый челнок массой 12 тонн (во втором сообщении прототип 1,5 тонн) все время будет садится в море? или это горе-журналисты? 
Подразумевается что в отличии от программ США и СССР/России многоразовый крылатый аппарат весом 12 тонн, не прототип, приземляется не на полосу, а на водную поверхность?

Salo

Прототип RLV-TD действительно весит полторы тонны. А будет ли впоследствии многоразовый челнок это бабушка надвое сказала.
"Были когда-то и мы рысаками!!!"

Дмитрий Инфан

#7
Цитироватьpnetmon пишет:
По первому сообщению - это действительно многоразовый челнок массой 12 тонн (во втором сообщении прототип 1,5 тонн) все время будет садится в море? или это горе-журналисты?
"Многоразовый челнок массой 12 тонн" будет в принципе, когда-нибудь, а "прототип 1,5 тонны" - до конца этого года.

Salo

http://spacenews.com/india-to-fly-rlv-tech-demo-by-june/
ЦитироватьIndia To Fly RLV Tech Demo by June
by K.S. Jayaraman — March 5, 2015
Four test flights are planned for ISRO's Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) Technology Demonstration Program. Credit: ISRO  
 
BENGALURU, India — The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) will conduct its long-delayed initial test flight of a reusable launcher technology demonstrator by midyear, a senior government official said.
The Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) Technology Demonstration Program, involving a series of experimental missions, was conceived by ISRO in 2009 as a first step toward a fully reusable, two-stage-to-orbit launcher.
Jitendra Singh, minister of state for science, told the Indian parliament March 4 that in the upcoming test, the 1.5-ton technology demonstrator will be launched to a height of 70 kilometers atop a solid-rocket booster, an ascent during which it will reach five times the speed of sound. "Thereafter it will descend by gliding and splashing down into the sea," he said.
The flight will demonstrate the vehicle's hypersonic aerodynamic properties, avionics, thermal protection and control systems, and mission management, Singh said. The entire flight will be autonomous, he said.
According to ISRO, four flights of the technology demonstrator are planned. The upcoming hypersonic flight will be followed by a landing experiment, a launch to orbit and return mission and a scramjet propulsion demonstration.
The initial RLV Technology Demonstration Program flight originally was scheduled for 2011 but was postponed multiple times. The exact date of the coming flight has not been announced.
According to Indian space officials, the experimental flights will show, in a cost effective way, the technologies that are required for taking decisions on the design and development of the full-scale two-stage-to-orbit RLV.
"Были когда-то и мы рысаками!!!"

triage

#9
на сайте ISRO
 http://www.isro.gov.in/technology-development-programmes/reusable-launch-vehicle-technology-demonstration-program-rlv-td

индийское англоязычное СМИ с сообщением за 27 февраля..., а за 5 марта уже привели 
Цитировать http://www.newindianexpress.com/states/kerala/ISRO-Plans-to-Test-fly-Reusable-Launch-Vehicle-by-Mid-2015/2015/02/27/article2689302.ece
Published: 27th February 2015
KOVALAM: Taking India's 'space shuttle' dreams a notch closer to reality, the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) plans to test-fly the Re-usable Launch Vehicle-Technology Demonstrator (RLV-TD) by the middle of 2015.
"The test-flight will take place either by the end of the first half of this year or the beginning of the second half. Work is progressing satisfactorily," ISRO's new chief A S Kiran Kumar told Express on the sidelines of the three-day International Conference on Climate Change and Disaster Management which began here on Thursday. "This first test is one of a segment. Work on the RLV is progressing in steps," he said.
The unmanned, sub-orbital mission will lift off from the second launch pad of the Satish Dhawan Space Centre (SDSC), Sriharikota. In simple terms, the two-stage technology demonstrator is a 'space plane' rigged atop a rocket.  "The first stage burns on solid fuel. Atop it is the space plane which will return to earth after the flight," Kiran Kumar said.
At present, for placing satellites in orbit, ISRO uses the Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) and the Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV), both expendable vehicles. A Re-usable Launch Vehicle (RLV) - think NASA's space shuttles - will bring down expenses phenomenally and is the next big leap in ISRO's launch vehicle programme.
Kiran Kumar, who took over as ISRO chairman in January this year, also listed his other priorities for the space agency. Increasing the number of missions, completing India's navigational satellite constellation and the big cryogenic engine for the Mk-III version of GSLV are a few.
"We have to streamline the whole process. We are actually behind schedule in many programmes," he said.  An important project underway is the development of the semi-cryogenic engine, which, again slashes launch costs remarkably. Whereas a cryogenic engine uses Liquid Hydrogen (LH2) and Liquid Oxygen (LOX) as propellants, a semi-cryogenic system replaces LH2 with cheaper and easier-to-handle kerosene.

октоген

Ну индусы знаменитые фантазеры. Их предыдущие фантазии про ВКС с ожижением воздуха в воздухозаборнике и размерностью с миг-23 здорово меня повеселили. Остается сделать ставки на каком этапе ЭТОГО проекта они столкнутся с фундаментальными трудностями...

che wi

RLV-TD Mission to be Delayed At least Till the Year End
http://www.newindianexpress.com/states/kerala/RLV-TD-Mission-to-be-Delayed-At-least-Till-the-Year-End/2015/10/02/article3058357.ece

ЦитироватьTHIRUVANANTHAPURAM: The Reusable Launch Vehicle-Technology Demonstrator (RLV-TD) mission, India's first step towards building a space shuttle, will be delayed at least till the year end.

The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) originally planned to have the mission in October. But tests are still progressing on the prototype here at the Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre (VSSC). "Some more work is pending on the technology demonstrator. We have a few tests to complete and we will have the mission either towards December end or by the beginning of next year," said VSSC director Dr K Sivan. VSSC is in charge of constructing the prototype.

Initial plans were to have the mission in mid-2015. But continuing works and an extremely hectic launch schedule had forced the ISRO to put off the mission. The space agency also plans to have a commercial Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) mission, possibly in November. The PSLV-CA 29 mission is scheduled to place a bouquet of Singapore satellites in the orbit.

RLV-TD, which will be unmanned, comprises a space plane-like part riding atop a booster rocket. It will be launched from the Satish Dhawan Space Centre, Sriharikota. The RLV-TD weighs 1.5 tonnes and it will glide back to earth from a height of 70 kilometres. ISRO, which has twice successfully demonstrated the re-entry technology, plans to recover the RLV-TD from the Bay of Bengal.

The RLV-TD will be the first of a series of flight-tests before ISRO can design and build a real vehicle.

Salo

http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/bengaluru/Reusable-launch-vehicle-test-put-off/articleshow/49330128.cms
ЦитироватьReusable launch vehicle test put off
Chethan Kumar,TNN | Oct 13, 2015, 02.38 AM IST

BENGALURU: Indian Space Research Organisation (Isro) has postponed the test launch of the key reusable launch vehicle technology demonstrator (RLVTD) to next year.

While the earlier test schedule of September was disrupted by the launch of Astrosat, India's first astronomy satellite other launches with societal application have delayed it further.

A source said the focus currently is on putting the payload for GPS Aided Geo Augmented Navigation (GAGAN) system which will be put in space by GSAT in November first week and the subsequent Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System (IRNSS) launch in December.

"Both these missions have direct societal applications, which Isro feels is important," the source said, reiterating that preparations for the RLVTD test were all ready. The reusable launch vehicle will reduce launching cost to one-tenth of what's incurred now.

Another source pointed out that even the eventual test of the RLVTD will be of a vehicle that's one fifth the original prototype and may not even require the PSLV. "A single-phase rocket will suffice," he said. Isro has already successfully completed testing the crew module, which is important for the human space programme.
"Были когда-то и мы рысаками!!!"

triage

#13
пишут о переносе первого запуска уменьшенного демонстратора технологий на первую неделю апреля, с меньшей вероятностью запуск в первой недели февраля, из-за обнаруженных технических проблем, а так же из-за других имеющихся запусков.
Цитироватьhttp://www.newindianexpress.com/states/kerala/ISROs-RLV-TD-Project-Likely-to-be-Delayed/2015/12/28/article3199197.ece

ISRO's RLV-TD Project Likely to be Delayed
Last Updated: 28th December 2015 05:08 AM

THIRUVANANTHAPURAM:  Technical snags have forced the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) to put off the first test on a scaled-down prototype of India's futuristic space shuttle.
Sources said on Sunday that the Reusable Launch Vehicle-Technology Demonstrator (RLV-TD), under development at the Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre (VSSC) here at Thumba, developed a minor leak during a test, forcing the ISRO to postpone the mission. The ambitious RLV-TD, the first small step to building a 'space shuttle' which can return to earth after accomplishing space missions, is likely to be delayed up to April 2016.  ISRO had originally planned a mid-2015 launch for the RLV-TD. It had later been postponed to January 2016.

VSSC Director Dr K Sivan said that some of the components had to be re-assembled. ''If things go as planned, we can launch the mission in the first week of February. Otherwise, the test will be conducted in the first week of April,'' he said. ISRO has three missions lined up for January and March, which is another reason why the RLV-TD could be delayed up to April. ISRO plans to launch the three remaining IRNSS satellites - which will complete the seven-satellite Indian Regional Navigational Satellite System - by March 31. The first of the three is to be launched on January 20, and the remaining two in March using the Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV).  "The missions will be launched from the first launch pad, which is also to be used for the RLV-TD,'' Sivan said.

The RLV-TD consists of a winged space plane-like part rigged atop a booster rocket. The rocket will go up to a height of 70 km and release the space plane portion which will glide down to earth. 
In the first test, the space plane will glide into a landing in the Bay of Bengal. RLV-TD will be the first of a series of tests planned by ISRO before venturing to build the actual vehicle.

Сергей

Концептуально - после посадки на воду придется менять все керамические теплозащитные плитки - очень сильные термонапряжения при резком охлаждении, и или потрескаются, или отвалятся.

PIN

"Концептуально" это демонстратор/прототип, аналогично IXV.
Ничего там менять не надо, потому что аппарат по определению одноразовый.

Garixon

Задержка запуска индийского космолета
ЦитироватьВ середине 2015 года так и не был реализован запланированный запуск индийского космолета.
    Речь идет о космолете RLV-TD, который разрабатывался Индийским Космическим Исследовательским центром (Space Research Organisation (ISRO). Это многоразовый экспериментальный космолет, который по дизайну очень схож с американским космолетом X-37B. 
     Как сообщают организаторы проекта, первый демонстрационный запуск индийского космолета был перенесен по техническим причинам. Ожидается, что запуск состоится в феврале или даже апреле 2016 года.
Космолет RLV-TD был разработан с целью снизить стоимость космических запусков. По предварительным подсчетам, запуск полезной нагрузки на околоземную орбиту при помощи нового индийского космолета снизит стоимость с 5000 долларов до 500 долларов за у килограмм.

triage

Большие ошибки перевода....

che wi

ISRO plans technology demonstration of Reusable Launch Vehicle mission by mid-May

ЦитироватьIndian Space Research Organisation is planning the technology demonstration of its Reusable Launch Vehicle, expected to make space missions economically viable, by mid-May.

The flight integration of the Reusable Launch Vehicle-Technology Demonstrator (RLV-TD) is almost complete at the Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre (VSSC) in Thiruvananthapuram and it will be shifted to Bengaluru for further tests next week, VSSC Director K Sivan said on Monday.

"RLV-TD is almost integrated and tests are progressing. It will be shifted to Bengaluru next week for an acoustic test and then to Satish Dhawan Space Centre, Sriharikota (SHAR) for final preparations before the launch," he told reporters here.

"We want clear weather conditions for the launch. We hope it will happen by first half of May," he said.

Спойлер
RLV-TD is a series of technology demonstration missions that have been considered as a first step towards realising a Two Stage To Orbit (TSTO) fully reusable vehicle.

Under the preliminary mission, which is planned as a suborbital one, a double-delta winged vehicle, which more or less resembles an aircraft, will be launched from the SHAR.

The 6.5 meter-long vehicle, having a mass of 1.75 tonne, will go up to around 70 km after which it is expected to descend at a particular point on the sea.

Sivan said the proposed mission would be just a "baby step" in terms of the RLV technology and no way near to the real Reusable Launch Vehicle.

"What we do now is only a demonstration. It is no way near to the real RLV. It is like a drop test to bring back a launched vehicle to some point. It is just a baby step towards the giant leap," he said.

Flush air-data system, slow burning propellant and composite movable fin are among the significant features of the RLV-TD.

The total cost of the mission is estimated to be around Rs 95 crore, the VSSC Director said adding the launch would give major inputs for the designing of the full-scale RLV in future.
[свернуть]

Pirat5


Salo

http://spaceflightnow.com/2016/05/19/india-readies-reusable-launch-vehicle-testbed-for-flight/
ЦитироватьIndia readies reusable launch vehicle testbed for flight             
 May 19, 2016 Stephen Clark     
 
Artist's concept of India's reusable launch vehicle demonstrator. Credit: ISRO

India's space agency plans to boost a sleek winged prototype spacecraft into the upper atmosphere aboard a solid-fueled rocket early Monday on a short test flight that will end with a controlled, unpowered glide to a simulated runway landing in the Bay of Bengal.
The reduced-scale space plane features delta wings and angled tail fins, with an outward appearance resembling a mini-space shuttle like the U.S. Air Force's X-37B orbiter.
Indian officials hope the testbed is a pathfinder for a future unmanned reusable launch vehicle that could take off like a rocket, deploy a satellite in orbit, and return to Earth and land on a runway.
Monday's demo mission an early step in the development of such a launcher, which Indian officials say is likely 15 years from becoming operational.
The test vehicle will not reach space on Monday's flight, but a rocket booster will accelerate the craft up to six times the speed of sound within 90 seconds after a vertical liftoff from the Satish Dhawan Space Center, India's launch base on the country's east coast.
The launch is scheduled for 0400 GMT (12 a.m. EDT) Monday, according to multiple Indian news reports.
After consuming its 9 metric tons (nearly 20,000 pounds) of pre-packed solid propellant, the booster will separate from the space plane as it coasts to a maximum altitude near 70 kilometers (43 miles).
Then the craft will pitch its nose up, allowing a heat shield on its belly to take the brunt of the high temperatures generated by the vehicle's speedy descent back into the thick, lower layers of the atmosphere.
The technology pathfinder is instrumented with sensors to measure the pressures, temperatures and structural loads it encounters in flight.
The Indian Space Research Organization is leading the reusable launcher's development.
The Reusable Launch Vehicle-Technology Demonstration program, or RLV-TD, includes a series of test flights designed "to evaluate various technologies, namely, hypersonic flight, autonomous landing, powered cruise flight and hypersonic flight using air-breathing propulsion," ISRO said on its website.
Monday's mission, expected to last about 10 minutes from liftoff to splashdown, is known as the hypersonic flight experiment.
Its objective is to characterize the aero-thermal dynamics of the winged re-entry craft as it autonomously steers toward a predetermined point in the Bay of Bengal east of the launch site. Engineers will also test the performance of its heat shield, made of silica tiles and a carbon-carbon nose cap, much like the retired American space shuttle.
India spent at least $14 million and took five years developing the first flight model for the RLV-TD program, according to the NDTV television news network.
ISRO does not plan to recover the vehicle on the hypersonic flight experiment.
Future test flights include a landing experiment, a return flight experiment and a scramjet propulsion experiment, ISRO said.
An operational reusable launch vehicle based on the winged space plane design will be at least five times larger than the SUV-sized, 1,750-kilogram (3,858-pound) testbed slated to fly Monday.
The first model has no on-board engines, while a full-scale reusable launcher will have two stages, carry air-breathing engines, and have conventional rocket thrusters.
"The cost of access to space is the major deterrent in space exploration and space utilization," ISRO said on its website. "A reusable launch vehicle is the unanimous solution to achieve low cost, reliable and on-demand space access."
The European Space Agency tested a similar space plane called the Intermediate Experimental Vehicle last year, but it flew more than 400 kilometers (250 miles) above Earth and reached much faster speeds than India's RLV-TD pathfinder.
A.S. Kiran Kumar, ISRO's chairman, told the Hindu newspaper that the hypersonic flight experiment is "a very preliminary step" in the development of a reusable rocket.
"We have to go a long way," he said, according to the Hindu. "But these are very essential steps we have to take."
"Были когда-то и мы рысаками!!!"

Salo

Пуск ожидается 23 мая в 07:00 ДМВ.
"Были когда-то и мы рысаками!!!"


che wi

India's first-ever indigenous space shuttle RLV-TD launched successfully

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vMLHGr8a3Dg

ЦитироватьIndia's first-ever 'swadeshi' or indigenous space satellite launch vehicle - dubbed the Re-Usable Launch Vehicle - Technology Demonstrator or RLV-TD - was launched from Sriharikota in Andhra Pradesh at 7 am today. The mission was declared successful 20 minutes after lift-off.

azeast

#24
http://tass.ru/kosmos/3305008

Индия успешно провела испытательный запуск прототипа своего первого многоразового космического корабля. Об этом сообщила Индийская организация космических исследований (ISRO), которая занималась разработкой "челнока" на протяжении последних 15 лет.
Прототип шаттла RLV-TD (крылатый многоразовый корабль-демонстратор технологий) был запущен с космодрома на острове Шрихарикота в штате Андхра-Прадеш в 07:00 по местному времени (04:30 мск). Спустя 20 минут с момента пуска ракеты испытание было признано успешным. Как пояснил ход испытаний глава космического центра им. Викрама Сарабхаи (VSSC) К.Сиван, аппарат подняли на высоту 70 км, после чего в Бенгальском заливе в 500 км от берега была совершена попытка его приземления на виртуальную взлетно-посадочную полосу.
От удара о воду прототип разрушился, что было предусмотрено заранее. "Собранные при эксперименте данные будут использованы для улучшения конструкции шаттла и разработки идеальной взлетно-посадочной полосы", - отметил он. Первым кораблем пришлось пожертвовать ради дальнейшего успешного продвижения программы. Это серьезные расходы - на изготовление RLV-TD длиной 6,5 м, весом 1,75 т и стоимостью $14,5 млн ушло более пяти лет.

Salo

"Были когда-то и мы рысаками!!!"

Георгий

Мне понравилась заметка на Газета.ру

"В Индии успешно запустили первую многоразовую ракету-носитель национального производства.
Отмечается, что пуск ракеты под названием RLV-TD ..... Длинна ракеты 6,5 метров, вес — 1,75 тонн.
28 апреля на орбиту был запущен научный спутник «Ломоносов»."

журноламеры перепутали все и вся, и гордо сравнили испытания прототипа шаттла под названием  "многразовая ракета" с рядовым спутником на ракете технологий Фау-2

triage

#27
при чтении приведенного источника (точнее перевода)
Цитировать http://www.ndtv.com/india-news/exclusive-making-of-indias-space-shuttle-the-inside-story-1408551
...Americans successfully flew their space shuttles 135 times until they retired it in 2011 over cost constraints and the Russians flew it only once in 1989. .....
на сравнение с шаттлом показалось что они пилотируемый создают.

Ранее писали http://novosti-kosmonavtiki.ru/forum/messages/forum14/topic12878/message1378779/#message1378779
ЦитироватьThe proposed RLV is designed in two parts; a manned space plane rigged atop a single stage, booster rocket using solid fuel. The rocket is expendable while the RLV would fly back to earth and land like a normal aeroplane after the mission. 

triage

#28
Цитироватьhttp://www.isro.gov.in/update/23-may-2016/india%E2%80%99s-reusable-launch-vehicle-technology-demonstrator-rlv-td-successfully
May 23, 2016
India's Reusable Launch Vehicle-Technology Demonstrator (RLV-TD), Successfully Flight Tested

Today, May 23, 2016 ISRO successfully flight tested India's first winged body aerospace vehicle operating in hypersonic flight regime.   

In this experimental mission, the HS9 solid rocket booster carrying RLV-TD lifted off from the First Launch Pad at Satish Dhawan Space Centre, Sriharikota at 07:00hr IST.  After a successful flight of 91.1second, HS9 burn out occurred, following which both HS9 and RLV-TD mounted on its top coasted to a height of about 56 km. At that height, RLV-TD separated from HS9 booster and further ascended to a height of about 65km. 

From that peak altitude of 65 km, RLV-TD began its descent followed by atmospheric re-entry at around Mach 5 (five times the speed of sound). The vehicle's Navigation, Guidance and Control system accurately steered the vehicle during this phase for safe descent. After successfully surviving a high temperatures of re-entry with the help of its Thermal Protection System (TPS), RLV-TD successfully glided down to the defined landing spot over Bay of Bengal, at a distance of about 450km from Sriharikota, thereby fulfilling its mission objectives. The vehicle was successfully tracked during its flight from ground stations at Sriharikota and a shipborne terminal. Total flight duration from launch to landing of this mission of the delta winged RLV-TD, lasted for about 770seconds.

In this flight, critical technologies such as autonomous navigation, guidance & control, reusable thermal protection system and re-entry mission management have been successfully validated.

ISRO acknowledge the support of Indian coast guard and National Institute of Ocean technology (NIOT) for the mid sea wind measurement and shipborne telemetry respectively in this mission.

Братушка

Жизнь человека коротка - но мало не покажется..


triage

#31
Часто упоминают про полосу для посадки (например) - что полоса это сложно, а другие с Dream Chaser-ом говорят что для их корабля подходят множество аэропортов.

knezevolk

А в чем принципиальное отличие от Шаттла? Как удастся избежать ошибок американцев?

triage

Цитироватьknezevolk пишет:
А в чем принципиальное отличие от Шаттла? Как удастся избежать ошибок американцев?
Ну например пока заявляется что будет первая ступень. Будет ли она многоразовая или это будет типа Бурана...

PIN

Цитироватьknezevolk пишет:
А в чем принципиальное отличие от Шаттла?
В том, что это одноразовый планер, а не многоразовый космический корабль.

triage

#35
Небольшой альбом найденный на http://www.siasat.pk/forum/showthread.php?455278-Indian-space-shuttle-makes-first-test-flight где фото на 
http://www.gettyimages.com/photos/sriharikota?excludenudity=true&page=1&phrase=sriharikota&sort=mostpopular

Заинтересовало - а как выглядит тыл аппарата. Лапок для управления в конце фюзеляжа нету в отличии от других аппаратов.



старая информация по проекту  https://sites.google.com/site/indianspaceprojects/launchers/reusable-launch-vehicle---technology-demonstrator-rlv-td#TOC-Development-Progress

che wi

Ещё пару фото с запуска


Salo

http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/thiruvananthapuram/buoyed-by-pslv-c34-success-isro-units-set-for-next-mission-by-august/articleshow/52873803.cms
ЦитироватьAir-Breathing Propulsion System (ABPS) which is planned for advanced space launches including next Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) uses atmospheric air as oxidiser for combustion with vehicle fuel to propel the rocket. This can bring down space travel cost by 1/10th and eventually 1/100th, VSSC scientists said.
"Были когда-то и мы рысаками!!!"

che wi


che wi

ISRO gearing up for second prototype test of RLV-TD

ЦитироватьTHIRUVANANTHAPURAM: A little over a year since the successful flight test of the first prototype of the futuristic Reusable Launch Vehicle - Technology Demonstrator (RLV-TD), ISRO is gearing up for a second go. Only this time, the prototype will 'land' on land instead of water.

Work is progressing at the Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre (VSSC) here on the second RLV-TD. A senior officer associated with the project said the RLV-TD will almost be a ditto version of the first scaled-down RLV-TD with the only exception being it will have landing gear.

ISRO sources said it may take another year for the model to be ready. They said the present plan is to launch the RLV-TD from Sriharikota and land it on an undisclosed Air Force airfield in the eastern sector. This is yet to be finalised though, they said.

Спойлер
The unmanned RLV-TD comprises a space shuttle-like component fitted atop a booster rocket. The first RLV-TD weighing 1.5 tonnes, was successfully launched from Sriharikota on May 23 last year and splashed down in the Bay of Bengal from a height of 64.8 km.

While VSSC is primarily responsible for building the RLV-TD, the navigational equipment are being provided by the ISRO Inertial Systems Unit in Thiruvananthapuram and ISRO's Satellite Applications Centre, Ahmedabad. Hindustan Aeronautics Ltd is responsible for the landing gear.

In fact, ISRO plans a series of TDs before attempting to build a fully-fledged vehicle that can be reused for launching satellites. A subsequent TD will possibly involve a slightly larger vehicle which will place a nano-satellite in the orbit.
[свернуть]

triage

Цитироватьhttps://www.reddit.com/r/ISRO/comments/7r01u8/papers_on_rlvtd_mission_published_in_current/
The 10 January 2018 issue of the journal Current Science has a special section devoted to the Reusable Launch Vehicle - Technology Demonstrator that ISRO flight tested in May 2016:
Message - A.S. Kiran Kumar
Message - K. Sivan
Message - S. Pandian
Preface - B.N. Suresh
An overview of Reusable Launch Vehicle Technology Demonstrator by K. Sivan & S. Pandian
Aerodynamic design, characterization and flight performance of RLV-TD
Aerothermal design, qualification and flight performance
Flush air data sensing system
Development of slow-burning solid rocket booster for RLV-TD hypersonic experiment
Integrated electrohydraulic control actuation system with centralized power plant for the Reusable Launch Vehicle Technology Demonstrator
Mission design and performance of RLV-TD
Integrated navigation, guidance and control system and validation
An end-to-end airframe structural system design
Development of large-sized Titanium alloy Ti6Al4V and nickel-based superalloy Inconel-718 forgings for Reusable Launch Vehicle-Technology Demonstrator flight
Ceramic coating on flexible external insulation blankets for reusable missions
Quality assurance challenges in testing and evaluation of reusable launch vehicle systems
Часть долго скачивается, но статьи многостраничные

А тут деньги просят
ЦитироватьThe Journal of Aerospace Sciences and Technologies too has published a RLV-TD special issue. But only the paper abstracts are available online without subscription.
ЦитироватьAmazing haul! Didn't see this one among these.
"Development of RLV-TD Stage Separation System"
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/320807857_Development_of_RLV-TD_Stage_Separation_System
Edit: Direct link to issue
Volume 114 - Issue 01 : 10 January 2018
http://www.currentscience.ac.in/php/toc.php?vol=114&issue=01
На NSF в теме

ЦитироватьSaurav Jha‏ @SJha1618
10:48 - 29 янв. 2018 г.

Here's an image of the RLV-TD undergoing tests in the reverberation chamber at NAL's acoustic test facility.

А древнее фото
Цитироватьhttps://www.defenceaviation.com/2016/05/indias-attempt-to-develop-its-own-space-shuttle-the-reusable-launch-vehicle-technology-demonstrator-rlv-td.html

India's attempt to develop its own "Space Shuttle", The Reusable Launch Vehicle-Technology Demonstrator (RLV-TD)
Posted by: Larkins Dsouza May 23, 2016

Salo

https://www.thehindubusinessline.com/news/science/isro-moves-on-gears-up-to-test-semi-cryogenic-engine-in-ukraine/article29451601.ece#
Цитировать...

A new AVATAR

ISRO's rocketry has many ambitious milestones to cross. First, there is the re-usable launch vehicle but the real meat is to come later, hopefully by 2025, when the AVATAR vehicle will become operational.

Jointly developed by ISRO and Defence Research and Development Organization (DRDO), AVATAR will be a space plane that can take off and land from airfields, like commercial aircraft. It will be a technological marvel, which will collect air on its way up, separate oxygen from it and store the gas on-board for space use.

Apart from bringing down the cost of launching satellites incredibly, to under $100 a kg, the AVATAR is also expected to make 'space solar stations' possible. These are solar power plants in space that will produce electricity and beam it down as microwaves.

Today, taking up tonnes of material to build such a station makes it uneconomical, but AVATAR could favourably invert the economics of it. Incidentally, China has made substantial progress in building the first ever SSS.

In the meantime, ISRO is also trying to master the technology for 'docking' with a space station, so that Indian astronauts and supplies can be ferried up and down. ISRO indeed has little time to grieve over Chandrayaan-2.

Published on September 19, 2019
"Были когда-то и мы рысаками!!!"

triage

Цитироватьhttps://spacenews.com/india-outlines-launch-plans-progress-in-human-spaceflight-and-space-transportation/

by Andrew Jones — February 27, 2020

HELSINKI — India's launch plans for the coming year include a range of Earth observation, communication and navigation satellites according to an annual report.

Progress in the areas of space transportation and human spaceflight is also laid out in the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) report.
...
In space transportation India is proceeding with a Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) project to demonstrate technologies for developing a wing body vehicle similar to that of an aircraft. A Landing Experiment to test autonomous landing at an airfield in Karnataka, southwest India following airdrop from a helicopter was stated to be planned for the last quarter of 2019. No update on its status or outcome was provided.
...
https://www.isro.gov.in/sites/default/files/flipping_book/annual_report_2019-20_english/index.html#68

triage

#43
Кажется треш и угар в тексте т.к. какой-то американский пример. Планируется сброс с вертолета и посадка на парашюте. Раньше на картинках на парашюте приземлялась вторая ступень или что-то другое

Цитата: undefinedhttps://swarajyamag.com/amp/story/insta%2Findias-own-space-shuttle-isro-likely-to-test-ground-landing-of-its-reusable-launch-vehicle-by-end-of-this-year

By IANS
October 07, 2020 at 4:23 PM

The Indian space agency is likely to test its reusable launch vehicle's (RLV) landing on the ground sometime in November or December 2020, said a senior official.

The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) is targeting to build RLV similar to USA's space shuttle to put into orbit satellites and come back to land for the next mission. This in turn would bring down the satellite launch costs.

The two Indian rockets in service - Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) and Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV) - and also the upcoming Small Satellite Launch Vehicle (SSLV) - are expendable ones.

"We are planning to test the Reusable Launch Vehicle's landing in Chitradurga District in Karnataka. We want to do the test in November/December this year," S Somanath, Director, Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre (VSSC) -- part of ISRO -- told IANS.

As per plans, the RLV will be lifted up by a helicopter and from the height of four km it will be released.

Post release by the helicopter, the RLV will glide and navigate towards the runway and land on its own in an airfield in Chitradurga District deploying its parachute, Somanath said.

According to ISRO, RLV Interface System (RIS) for interfacing with helicopter and Qualification Model of landing gear have been realised.

Simply put, RLV will ascend to orbit, stay there, re-enter and land on a runway like an aircraft. The technology has the challenges of meeting the complexities of both -- a rocket and an aircraft.

According to Somanath, about 30-40 ISRO officials have to be taken to Chitradurga and stay there for about two weeks.

In 2016, ISRO successfully tested RLV's descent from an altitude of 65 km, its atmospheric re-entry at around Mach 5 (five times the speed of sound).

According to ISRO, the vehicle's navigation, guidance and control system accurately steered the vehicle during this phase for safe descent.

After successfully surviving high temperatures of re-entry with the help of its Thermal Protection System (TPS), the vehicle successfully glided down to the defined landing spot over Bay of Bengal, at a distance of about 450km from Sriharikota in Andhra Pradesh.

Total flight duration from launch to landing of this mission lasted for about 770 seconds.

(This story has been published from a wire agency feed without modifications to the text. Only the headline has been changed.)


triage

Цитата: /Иван/ от 08.01.2022 21:21:44P.S.
https://www.isro.gov.in/launcher/rlv-td
Цитироватьhttps://www.isro.gov.in/launcher/rlv-td
The winged RLV-TD has been configured to act as a flying test bed to evaluate various technologies, namely, hypersonic flight, autonomous landing and powered cruise flight. In future, this vehicle will be scaled up to become the first stage of India's reusable two stage orbital launch vehicle.

triage

запланированы тестовые сбросы с вертолета
Цитироватьhttps://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/home/science/key-landing-test-will-push-reusable-vehicle-rlv-td-closer-to-orbital-re-entry-mission/articleshow/89596282.cms

Key landing test will push reusable vehicle RLV-TD closer to Orbital Re-Entry mission
Chethan Kumar | Updated: Feb 15, 2022, 19:44 IST

копи-паста приведенного тут текста отсюда
Цитироватьhttps://timesofindia.live/latest-news/rlv-key-landing-test-will-push-reusable-vehicle-rlv-td-closer-to-orbital-re-entry-mission-times-of-india/
BANGALORE: ISRO, which is making steady progress on its reusable launch vehicle-technology demonstrator (RLV-TD), wants to conduct a major landing test in the next few months – RLV-LEX – which will push it closer to an orbital. Re-entry Test (ORE). The planned landing test will be conducted at Challakere in Chitradurga district, about 220 km from Bangalore.
ISRO Chairman S Somanath, while confirming that the company has planned RLV-LEX this year, said: That will be the case. We are preparing for the test and the system is being prepared. We will make an announcement soon. "
On the LEX, the car will be flown by helicopter at an altitude of about 3 km to 5 km and will be dropped at a distance of about 4 km to 5 km from the runway with a horizontal speed. According to ISRO, after the release, the RLV glides, navigates the runway and makes a conventional autonomous landing with a landing gear.
S Unnikrishnan Nair, Director, Vikram Sarabhai Space Center (VSSC), said: "We are planning to test in the next three to four months, the hardware is almost ready. The RLV will be released from the helicopter under controlled conditions. It will have various control systems including its own navigation and guidance control system and aerodynamics sensors etc. This test will mimic the last 800 m to 1 km of the actual orbital mission. "
Referring to how landing on any mission is one of the most complex operations, Nair said the RLV-LEX technology would take the demonstration one step closer to the planned ORE.
"Once we have successfully completed this mission and we have verified the software, landing gear and data on how the aerodynamics sensors worked to operate the aircraft and bring it back to its intended place on runways and other complex technologies, we will be ready. Orbital re-entry test. For this, RLV will be increased, "said Nair.
According to ISRO, in ORE, a wing body called Orbital Re-entry Vehicle (ORV) will be carried into orbit by a boarding vehicle derived from existing GSLV and PSLV stages and remain in orbit for a specified period of time, re-entering and landing gear. Landing on a runway with autonomous co.
"Prior to RLV-LEX, we conducted RLV-TD HEX-01 (hypersonic test) mission where we successfully tested autonomous navigation, guidance and control, reusable heat protection system and re-entry mission management. Once LEX is done, we need to integrate both for ORE, "said Nair.
Operated on May 23, 2016, the RLV-TD HEX was a 770-second suborbital flight and was designed for landing at sea. Experimental missions have shown the HS9 solid rocket booster RLV-TD moving at an altitude of about 65 km from where the vehicle started its landing and then re-entering the atmosphere at Mach 5 (five times the speed of sound).
ISRO, which has been working on the technology for more than a decade, has decided to build it primarily to address cost and time issues. "The cost of access to space is a major barrier to space exploration and space use. A reusable launch vehicle is a low-cost, reliable and on-demand solution for gaining access to space," ISRO said.
However, mastering this technology will provide multiple benefits, including the development of different types of launch vehicles, space transport and much more. While the ORE will be a major milestone, the RLV-TD will only take longer to build a technology demonstrator and a truly reusable launch vehicle.

Цитироватьreusable launch vehicle-technology demonstrator (RLV-TD)
RLV-LEX – which will push it closer to an orbital. Re-entry Test (ORE)...  Nair said the RLV-LEX technology would take the demonstration one step closer to the planned ORE. ...
in ORE, a wing body called Orbital Re-entry Vehicle (ORV)
"Prior to RLV-LEX, we conducted RLV-TD HEX-01 ... Once LEX is done, we need to integrate both for ORE, "said Nair.
While the ORE will be a major milestone, the RLV-TD will only take longer to build a technology demonstrator and a truly reusable launch vehicle

Всё-таки есть в этой штуке что-то вроде безумно-гаражного шарма.

Starship, который ваяли из нержи в чистом поле выглядел необычно, но тут...

Тут эта штука ещё и маленькая)

Но вообще мило.

Arzach

Цитата: ISRO Spaceflight (@ISROSpaceflight)Председатель ISRO доктор С. Соманат сообщил, что посадочный эксперимент RLV-TD (LEX) состоится в эту субботу, 28 января.
То есть, насколько я понял, речь о "бросковом испытании" - сбросе с вертолета - для отработки приземления на ВПП. Следующим этапом станет ORE (Orbital Re-Entry Experiment) - вывод на орбиту с возвращением и приземлением на ВПП.

Вы не можете просматривать это вложение.

Искандер

Вроде и круто, но...
Она же ма-лень-ка-я!
Сейчас мировые планы по извозу выросли в разы, не будет хватать носителей.
Индия не собирается участвовать в этом празднике жизни? Тихо сам с собою?
Потом, это фактически микроСШ с крылышками для планирования, а как же ж пилотажка?
Короче - недоразмерен!
Aures habent et non audient, oculos habent et non videbunt

telekast

Цитата: Искандер от 26.01.2023 17:15:14Вроде и круто, но...
Она же ма-лень-ка-я!
Сейчас мировые планы по извозу выросли в разы, не будет хватать носителей.
Индия не собирается участвовать в этом празднике жизни? Тихо сам с собою?
Потом, это фактически микроСШ с крылышками для планирования, а как же ж пилотажка?
Короче - недоразмерен!
Ну, будут на нем отрабатывать систему, может какиенибуть наноспутники попутно выводить. Потом ю, на основе опыта смаштабируют. 

Искандер

Цитата: telekast от 26.01.2023 17:40:48
Цитата: Искандер от 26.01.2023 17:15:14Вроде и круто, но...
Она же ма-лень-ка-я!
Сейчас мировые планы по извозу выросли в разы, не будет хватать носителей.
Индия не собирается участвовать в этом празднике жизни? Тихо сам с собою?
Потом, это фактически микроСШ с крылышками для планирования, а как же ж пилотажка?
Короче - недоразмерен!
Ну, будут на нем отрабатывать систему, может какиенибуть наноспутники попутно выводить. Потом ю, на основе опыта смаштабируют.
Необязательно нано, но небольшие.
Для собственных потребностей Индии похоже этого достаточно.
Сейчас намечается явный дефицит средств выведения на мировом рынке - многим захотелось свои созвездия иметь или просто иметь свой спутник, SpaceX не всем подходит, да и он не справится. NewGlen, Вулкан, Старшип задерживаются, существующий парк не потянет. А Индии все пох, своя программа тихого попила.
Сама идея ведь классная - развитие темы Шатла+Старшипа. Тут ведь важно с размером угадать, покрыть потребности коммерческого выведения спутников, пилотируемой космонавтики, ну и собственных нужд.
Брали бы пример с Маска - он сразу замахивается на минимально необходимый размер под целевую задачу.
Aures habent et non audient, oculos habent et non videbunt

Astro Cat

Цитата: Искандер от 28.01.2023 19:56:03SpaceX не всем подходит, да и он не справится.

Справится и еще как! Сотнями мелочи запускают! Хеви вон простаивают - нет нагрузок!

Astro Cat

Цитата: Искандер от 28.01.2023 19:56:03Сама идея ведь классная - развитие темы Шатла

Ничего классного. Тащить на орбиту шасси и крылья. Для посадки нужен аэродром оборудованный. Промах мимо полосы - крах.

Корабль должен садится почти в любую точку земного шара. Плюс-минус метр точностью.

Arzach

Цитата: Astro Cat от 28.01.2023 22:00:12Для посадки нужен аэродром оборудованный.
Не факт. Под Dream Chaser уже несколько обычных аэропортов сертифицировали. И в любую точку садиться крылатые не смогут, энергетика не позволит. 

Цена крыльев и шасси на орбиту - как раз способность сойти с орбиты с минимальными перегрузками и сесть в обычном аэропорте, не требуя содержания всяких ПСС.

Искандер

Цитата: Astro Cat от 28.01.2023 21:56:22
Цитата: Искандер от 28.01.2023 19:56:03SpaceX не всем подходит, да и он не справится.

Справится и еще как! Сотнями мелочи запускают! Хеви вон простаивают - нет нагрузок!

Например, 
Амазон не будет обращаться к SpaceX.BO пока не имеет ракеты. ЕМНИП ULA все Атласы расписаны, Вулкана пока нет, Arianespace - дорого и ограничено! На минуточку - у Амазон группировка больше 3000 спутников!
Суть - у Индии нет возможностей поучаствовать в распиле на этом проекте к примеру, хотя могли бы.
Проект то интересный, но...
Aures habent et non audient, oculos habent et non videbunt

Искандер

Цитата: Astro Cat от 28.01.2023 22:00:12
Цитата: Искандер от 28.01.2023 19:56:03Сама идея ведь классная - развитие темы Шатла

Ничего классного. Тащить на орбиту шасси и крылья. Для посадки нужен аэродром оборудованный. Промах мимо полосы - крах.

Корабль должен садится почти в любую точку земного шара. Плюс-минус метр точностью.

Много у шатлов было промахов мимо полосы? Это очередной "страшный ветер".
Ну, зачем в любую точку? Кому это нужно? Нужно в определенные, на аэродромы, где его уже ждут.
Низкий "мю" - характерный признак всех многоразовых систем, но для них главное экономическая целесообразность, возможность возвращать грузы с орбиты и частота пусков, т.е. иначе производительность космической системы.
Aures habent et non audient, oculos habent et non videbunt