HXMT (Hard X-ray Modulation Telescope) – Цзюцюань (JSLC) – CZ-2D – 15.06.2017 03:00 UTC

Автор che wi, 05.11.2016 13:28:35

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Безумный Шляпник

Пять объектов запуска 2017-034. SCN 42758 - 42762.
42762 - ступень, уведена на эллиптическую.

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ЦитатаCAS 4A & CAS 4B amateur radio payloads piggybacked on Chinese imaging microsatellites OVS 1A & OVS 1B


НОРАД опубликовал первичные наборы TLE на пять объектов запуска - 42758 ÷ 42762



Цитата Andrew Jones‏ @AJ_FI 2 ч. назад

China's tracking station at Kashi in Xinjiang picked up the first data from #HXMT at 16:45:25 Beijing time (08:45 UTC) today.


Весёлые картинки. Китайцы втихую пожирают рынок ДЗЗ



ЦитатаChina receives data from first X-ray space telescope

Source: Xinhua | 2017-06-16 20:49:00 | Editor: An

BEIJING, June 16 (Xinhua) -- China Friday received the first package of data from its x-ray space telescope launched Thursday, according to the Institute of Remote Sensing and Digital Earth of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS).

The package of high quality data with a total size of 2.1 gigabytes was received by the remote sensing satellite station in northwest China's Kashgar, before being transferred to the CAS National Space Science Center.

The ground stations in Beijing's Miyun District and south China's Sanya also tracked the signals from the telescope.
 Скрытый текст:
Weighing 2.5 tonnes, the Hard X-ray Modulation Telescope, dubbed Insight, was launched via a Long March-4B rocket from Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center in northwest China's Gobi Desert at 11 a.m. Thursday.

In the following five days, other components of Insight will start working in succession.

After five months of in-orbit tests and calibrations, the telescope will be officially put into use to conduct broadband x-ray space observations. Its main tasks are to observe black holes, pulsars and gamma-ray bursts.

Kicking off in March 2011, the Insight project was jointly carried out by the State Administration of Science, Technology and Industry for National Defence and the CAS, and is a crucial part of China's high-energy astrophysics space research.


Цитата ChinaSpaceflight‏ @cnspaceflight 9 ч назад

 Скрытый текст:

Цитата【Zhuhai-1】 OVS-1A / B video satellite first satellite imagery data - Vatican City, Japan Osaka, Seoul Air Force Base..
ЦитатаЧжухай-1 ОВС-1A / B спутниковых данных видео первого спутника изображения - Ватикан, Осака, Сеул Air Base.



Цитата ChinaSpaceflight‏ @cnspaceflight 9 ч. назад


ЦитатаAfter the picture is enlarged
ЦитатаЕсли фото увеличить


ЦитатаChina's first space observatory turns on X-ray detectors

Andrew Jones

The main detectors on China's first space observatory, the Hard X-ray Modulation Telescope (HXMT), have been powered up as the satellite enters a period of on-orbit testing.

HXMT, also known as '慧眼' (Huiyan) or 'Insight', was launched fr om the Jiuquan Satellite Launch Centre atop a Long March 4B rocket on June 15.
 Скрытый текст:

HXMT, or Huiyan, lifts off from Jiuquan at 11:00 on June 15, 2017. (Photo: Courtesy of Qiang Wang, Chinese Academy of Sciences)

The probe's three sets of main detectors have now been booted, according to the Institute of High Energy Physics (IHEP).

The low-energy detectors (LE) and mid-range detectors (ME) were switched on on June 19, with the high-energy detector (HE) following on June 21.

Together they will collect highly energetic x-rays emitted by black holes, neutron stars and other phenomena across a range of 1-250 kiloelectron volts (keV).

Black holes and neutron stars are the main sources of cosmic X-rays, but these can only be seen from space, as the Earth's atmosphere absorbs X-rays.

Zhang Shuangnan, principal investigator of the project, says that HXMT will survey the Galactic plane to create a high precision x-ray map of the sky.

The probe's wide range of energy coverage means it may pick up previously undiscovered black holes in the Milky Way, and perhaps even new types of objects.

Above: The HXMT satellite under development (CAST).

HMXT is currently orbiting between 538 and 547 km above the Earth, inclined by 43 degrees, wh ere it is expected to operate for at least four years.

It joins a number of X-ray observatories in orbit, including NASA's Chandra and NuSTAR, and XMM-Newton, launched by the European Space Agency.

HXMT will also look for the electromagnetic counterparts to gravitational waves, which were first detected by LIGO in 2015, and gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) up to energies of 3,000 keV.
Another potential use of the satellite is to explore the mechanisms of neutron star and pulsar timing, following on from the cutting edge XPNAV-1 satellite launched last autumn, potentially working in concert with the Five Hundred Metre Aperture Spherical Telescope (FAST) in Guizhou Province.
Dawn of Chinese space science

HXMT was the fourth and final launch of a first batch of space science missions developed by the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), follows the DAMPE dark matter probe, the Shijian-10 retrievable microgravity experiment satellite, and the pioneering QUESS quantum science satellite.

A second batch of five missions are already under development, with launches expected around 2020.

They are the space-weather observatory mission in collaboration with the European Space Agency (SMILE), a global water cycle observation mission (WCOM), the Magnetosphere, Ionosphere and Thermosphere mission (MIT), the Einstein Probe (EP), and the Advanced Space-based Solar Observatory (ASO-S).


ЦитатаInsight-HXMT Sets Limits in New Gravitational Wave Event

Oct 16, 2017

Insight-HXMT, China's first X-ray astronomical satellite, has made an important contribution to gravitational wave astronomy, by setting a strict upper limit on electromagnetic radiation produced during a recently discovered gravitational wave event.
 Скрытый текст:
The Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory (LIGO) and the European Gravitational Observatory Virgo announced on Oct. 16th 2017 the discovery of the gravitational wave event GW170817.

It contrasts with four previous gravitational wave events, which were caused by the merging of black holes, and this event is thought to have been created by the merging of two neutron stars. It is widely believed that this kind of new gravitational wave event can also produce strong electromagnetic (EM) emission at the time of merger.

An artist's impression of two stars orbiting each other (left). The orbit shrinks as the system emits gravitational waves (middle). When the stars merge (right), there is a resulting powerful emission of gravitational waves. (Image by NASA)
Dozens of observatories joined in an observation campaign to search for the EM counterpart of this event, searching at frequencies fr om radio to very high energy gamma-rays. Insight-HXMT, which was launched on June 15th 2017, has made an important contribution by setting a stringent upper limit on its prompt emission flux in the 0.2-5 MeV range.

Artist's impression of the Insight-HXMT satellite in space (Image by IHEP)
Only four X-ray and gamma-ray telescopes (Fermi, INTEGRAL, Insight-HXMT, and Konus-Wind) were monitoring the sky region of GW170817 when the event took place. Of these, Insight-HXMT has the largest detection area and best time resolution in the 0.2-5 MeV range.

About two seconds after the gravitational wave event, a weak short gamma-ray burst (GRB 170817A) independently triggered the Fermi Gamma Burst Monitor (GMB). The GBM localization is broadly consistent with the gravitational wave location given by the LIGO detector. Soon after, this gamma-ray burst was confirmed by offline analysis of data from the INTEGRAL satellite's SPI-ACS system.

However, different from theoretical predictions, the emission of GW170817 is weak and soft, and so the flux in the MeV energy band is extremely low. Neither Insight-HXMT nor any of the other telescopes has detected any significant emission in this energy range.

Insight-HXMT then set the most stringent MeV flux upper lim it, which is important for constraining the overall properties of GW170817. The observational results of Insight-HXMT will be published in a paper on the multi-messenger astrophysics of GW170817 that will be appear in The Astrophysical Journal Letters, and in a separate paper to be published in SCIENCE CHINA Physics, Mechanics & Astronomy.

According to Einstein' s theory of general relativity, the merging (coalescence) of two compact stars is able to create ripples in space-time known as gravitational waves. On September 14th, 2015, LIGO detected the first gravitational event. In honor of this achievement, the leaders of the LIGO experiment, Rainer Weiss, Barry Barish, and Kip Thorne were awarded the 2017 Nobel Prize in Physics.
(Editor: LIU Jia)


Хм, а ведь раньше считалось, что гамма-вспышки - вещь направленная, и мы их видим только если Земля находится на пути луча. И что именно поэтому они кажутся такими яркими - энергия не во все стороны излучается.

А тут обнаружили гамма-вспышку прям у первого же известного слияния нейтронных звёзд.

Теория поменялась и теперь снова считают, что гамма-вспышки излучаются во всех направлениях? Потому что иначе было бы бессмысленно определять "верхнюю границу" мощности - т. к. она зависит от положения Земли относительно направленности луча.


25.10.2017 02:16:47 #34 Последнее редактирование: 16.11.2017 00:32:04 от Maks
Цитатаuncle_jew пишет:
Хм, а ведь раньше считалось, что гамма-вспышки - вещь направленная, и мы их видим только если Земля находится на пути луча. И что именно поэтому они кажутся такими яркими - энергия не во все стороны излучается.

А тут обнаружили гамма-вспышку прям у первого же известного слияния нейтронных звёзд.

Теория поменялась и теперь снова считают, что гамма-вспышки излучаются во всех направлениях? Потому что иначе было бы бессмысленно определять "верхнюю границу" мощности - т. к. она зависит от положения Земли относительно направленности луча.
Теория нe поменялась. гамма-вспышeк мнoгo.
Cm.  http://dropmefiles.com/l45AF в otvetfizika18e.pdf

старая версия


ЦитатаChina's X-ray space observatory completes on-orbit testing after observing neutron star collision
by Andrew Jones | Dec 01, 2017 12:09 | CHINABEIJINGITALY

A rendering of the Hard X-ray Modulation Telescope in orbit. NSSC

China's first space telescope, the Insight X-ray observatory, has completed a five-month on-orbit testing phase, during which time it joined the global hunt for light fr om the collision of two neutron stars.

Zhao Jian, deputy director of the system engineering department of the State Administration of Science, Technology and Industry for National Defence (SASTIND), said at a review meeting on November 28 in Beijing that on-orbit testing had been satisfactorily completed and that most of the indicators exceeded the design targets and completed high-quality on-orbit testing with excellent results.
 Скрытый текст:
The Hard X-ray Modulation Telescope (HXMT), also named Huiyan or 'Insight' upon launch on June 15 this year, was designed to study the properties of transient X-ray sources in great detail and the circumstances in which emissions are generated.

The telescope will now survey the Galactic plane to create a high precision X-ray map of the sky, and in doing could confirm previously undiscovered black holes in the Milky Way, and perhaps even new types of objects.

At the meeting, arranged by the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) and SASTIND at the Institute for High Energy Physics (IHEP), the review team expressed that it has high hopes that Insight-HXMT and the research team will seize the opportunity to achieve unforeseen, breakthrough scientific results.

The mission has already had an impact. Insight-HXMT was recently involved in the global race to make observations of the electromagnetic counterparts to the gravitational waves unleashed by the collision of two neutron stars, with its observations putting a strict upper lim it on electromagnetic radiation emitted and helping to confirm the unexpectedly weak and soft nature of the gamma ray burst. The event was also observed by Chinese Antarctic telescopes.

The August 18 optical signal observation of the gravitational wave event GW170817 made by AST3-2. Purple Mountain Observatory

Another potential use of Insight-HXMT is to explore the mechanisms of neutron star and pulsar timing, following on from the cutting edge XPNAV-1 satellite launched last autumn, potentially working in concert with the Five Hundred Metre Aperture Spherical Telescope (FAST) in Guizhou Province.

Wang Yifang, director of IHEP, thanked those at all levels at SASTIND and CAS for their support, and stressed that the institute would strive to improve the scientific output from Insight-HXMT.

He also stated his strong support for future X-ray astronomy missions, including the enhanced X-ray Timing and Polarimetry Mission (eXTP), a space science mission designed to study the state of matter under extreme conditions of density, gravity and magnetism which is proposed for launch before 2025 and involves European partners.

Insight-HXMT initially had problems with funding, having been proposed in the 1990s but only gaining the necessary funding from the China National Space Agency (CNSA) and CAS in 2011, joining the DAMPE-Wukong dark matter probe, Shijian-10 retrievable probe and QUESS-Mozi quantum space science satellite in a first batch of Chinese space science missions.

These have all now been declared successful, with a new round of missions now beginning. DAMPE on Wednesday saw its its first results released, bringing a hint of an indirect detection of elusive dark matter.

Assistance from Italy

The University of Ferrara in Italy has been involved with the HXMT team by supporting ground calibrations on the instruments at its LARIX X-ray facility.

Initial interest from China in collaborating with Italy came from the success of BeppoSAX, an Italian-Dutch X-ray astronomy satellite, says Professor Filippo Frontera at the Department of Physics and Earth Sciences at Ferrara.

Both sides are now looking to continue working together, both relating to the findings of HXMT, such as unidentified high energy sources that may be discovered during the frequent Galactic plane surveys and the gamma-ray counterparts of gravitational signals, and beyond to other fields of mutual interest.


ЦитатаКитай ввел в эксплуатацию свою первую орбитальную рентгеновскую обсерваторию Huiyan
ПЕКИН, 30 января. /ТАСС/. Китайский спутник Huiyan официально введен в эксплуатацию и будет использоваться в качестве первой китайской рентгеновской обсерватории для исследования Вселенной. Об этом сообщило во вторник Государственное управление науки, технологий и промышленности для оборонных нужд КНР.
"Космический аппарат предназначен для исследования целого ряда космических явлений, в том числе черных дыр и пульсаров (нейтронных звезд)", - отмечается на сайте ведомства.
Huiyan был запущен 15 июня 2017 года с космодрома Цзюцюань (северо-западная провинция Ганьсу). За это время он успешно прошел орбитальные испытания и был признан пригодным для использования для реализации ряда ключевых научно-технических проектов стратегической значимости.


ЦитатаChina's space telescope opens new window to observe black holes
Source: Xinhua| 2019-10-26 22:43:36|Editor: Shi Yinglun
XIAMEN, Oct. 26 (Xinhua) -- China's first X-ray space telescope has helped scientists open a new window to observe and better understand bizarre celestial bodies like black holes and neutron stars.
The Hard X-ray Modulation Telescope (HXMT), dubbed Insight, sent into an orbit of 550 km above the Earth on June 15, 2017, has detected areas that are probably the closest to the black holes so far, shedding light on the basic properties of black holes and neutron stars and the behavior and radiation of matters near the strong magnetic and gravitational fields, said Lu Fangjun, deputy chief designer of the satellite.
The research team from the Institute of High Energy Physics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences announced some of the findings of the space telescope at the first China Space Science Assembly, which opened Saturday in Xiamen, east China's Fujian Province.
The satellite has conducted high precision and high-frequency observations on the binary star systems formed by a black hole and a normal star, or a neutron star and a normal star. When the matter of the normal star, driven by the strong gravitation, falls into a black hole or neutron star, it is accelerated and heated during the process, emitting strong X-rays, said Lu.
"We call them X-ray binary systems, which are regarded as natural laboratories of extreme physical conditions," said Lu.
Scientists study many phenomena that they cannot replicate on Earth by observing such systems and might learn more about the characteristics of black holes and neutron stars from the X-rays.
The HXMT has found a quasi-periodic change of the high energy X-rays emitted by the matter near black holes and neutron stars, Lu said.
Compared with X-ray astronomical satellites of other countries, HXMT has a larger detection area, broader energy range and more effective working time. These give it advantages in observing black holes and neutron stars emitting bright X-rays, according to Lu.
During its over two-year operation in orbit, the telescope has conducted more than 1,000 observations, sending back 2TB of scientific data. The satellite was also used to search for gamma-ray bursts corresponding to gravitational waves and test pulsar navigation.


ЦитатаКитайская обсерватория HXMT дает ученым новые возможности для исследования черных дыр
2019-10-29 20:25:55丨Russian.News.Cn
Сямэнь, 29 октября /Синьхуа/ -- Первая китайская космическая обсерватория HXMT открыла ученым новые горизонты для наблюдения черных дыр и нейтронных звезд.
Обсерватория HXMT или Insight - это модуляционный телескоп жесткого рентгеновского диапазона, который был выведен на орбиту высотой 550 км над поверхностью Земли 15 июня 2017 года.
При помощи этого космического аппарата астрономы исследовали районы, находящиеся на еще более близком расстоянии от центра черных дыр, что пролило свет на основные свойства черных дыр и нейтронных звезд, а также излучение вблизи сильных магнитных и гравитационных полей, сообщил заместитель главного конструктора проекта HXMT Лу Фанцзюнь.
Исследовательская группа из Института физики высоких энергий Академии наук Китая объявила о ряде открытий, сделанных при помощи HXMT, на 1-й Китайской ассамблее по вопросам космической науки, состоявшейся на днях в городе Сямэнь провинции Фуцзянь на востоке Китая.
Обсерватория провела высокоточные и высокочастотные наблюдения двойных звезд, которые состоят из черной звезды или нейтронной звездой с связанной гравитацией звездой-компаньоном. Попадая в черную дыру или к нейтронной звезде, вещество звезды-компаньона ускоряется и нагревается, испуская сильные рентгеновские лучи.
В ходе наблюдения названных систем в диапазоне рентгеновского излучения, ученые исследовали явления, которые невозможно воспроизвести на Земле, и постарались узнать больше о характеристиках черных дыр и нейтронных звезд.
Обсерватория HXMT открыла квазипериодическое изменение высокоэнергетического рентгеновского излучения вблизи черных дыр и нейтронных звезд, проинформировал Лу Фанцзюнь.
По сравнению с иностранными аналогами, HXMT способна вести наблюдение в более широкой зоне и в широком энергетическом диапазоне, добавил он.
За прошедшие два с лишним года обсерватория отправила обратно на Землю данные наблюдений в объеме 2 ТБ. HXMT также использовали для поиска гамма-всплеска и гравитационных волн и тестирования пульсарной навигации.


ЦитатаChina Focus: Chinese satellite explores mysterious signals in universe
Source: Xinhua| 2021-02-19 19:00:54|Editor: huaxia
BEIJING, Feb. 19 (Xinhua) -- China's Hard X-ray Modulation Telescope (HXMT), the country's space science satellite also known as Insight, has found that a fast radio burst (FRB) signal detected last year came from a magnetar in the Milky Way, Chinese scientists announced Friday.
The discovery marked a milestone in understanding the nature of the mysterious signal emanating from the universe, the scientists said.
The research was conducted jointly by scientists from the Institute of High Energy Physics (IHEP) under the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing Normal University, University of Nevada Las Vegas, Tsinghua University and other institutions. The findings have been published in the latest issue of Nature Astronomy.
 Скрытый текст:
In 2007, scientists detected bursts of extremely powerful radio waves in the sky lasting no more than a few milliseconds. The mysterious signal became known as FRBs.

Dozens of FRBs have been detected in the following decade, and astronomers have been trying to figure out what causes FRBs. Some reports even speculated that alien civilization could have been beaming FRBs to Earth.

One theory is that FRBs may come from magnetars, a type of neutron star. All neutron stars are the collapsed core of a dead star, not massive enough to become a black hole, while magnetars also have a shockingly powerful magnetic field.

Until last April, every known FRB came from outside the Milky Way, making them near impossible to study.

On April 28, 2020, two telescopes in North America, namely the Canadian Hydrogen Intensity Mapping Experiment (CHIME) and the U.S. Survey for Transient Astronomical Radio Emission 2 (STARE2) picked up a powerful millisecond-duration burst in our Milky Way. It has since been named FRB 200428, and was listed as the top 10 breakthroughs of 2020 by both Science and Nature.
FRB 200428 was located about 30,000 light-years away, roughly the same direction as magnetar SGR J1935+2154. The magnetar was acting up when the FRB 200428 was detected, emitting bursts of x-rays and gamma rays.

Although scientists believe that they had pinpointed the origin of FRB 200428, a final piece of the puzzle is still missing, which is needed to confirm SGR J1935+2154 produced the radio bursts.

"It is pure luck that China's space telescope caught the significant signal," said Zhang Shuangnan, lead scientist of HXMT, in an interview with Xinhua.

Zhang added that China's HXMT temporarily changed its observation plan last April to focus on SGR J1935+2154. Seven hours after the ground control sent the observation command, HXMT detected a very bright x-ray burst from SGR J1935+2154 which was about 8.6 seconds before FRB 200428.

Zhang said the time difference is consistent with the time delay of the radio signal due to the interstellar medium, indicating that the x-ray and radio bursts are from the same explosion, and it found that two spikes of the X-ray burst are the high energy counterpart of FRB 200428.

Compared with other space telescopes, HXMT provided the most detailed temporal and spectral information in understanding FRBs and magnetars, Zhang noted.
 Скрытый текст:
"The discovery is not the end of FRB stories, but the start of a new era," said Zhang.

The enhanced X-ray Timing and Polarimetry (eXTP) satellite developed by IHEP and many other domestic and international partner institutions, has entered phase-B (design phase), after more than 10 years of preliminary study and key technology development, he added. It will enable scientists to study FRBs, neutron stars and black holes from other galaxies.

"The universe is much stranger than we think," said Shrinivas R. (Shri) Kulkarni, George Ellery Hale Professor of Astronomy and Planetary Science at California Institute of Technology, in an interview with Xinhua via Zoom. He called on scientists to keep on exploring.

Kulkarni added that building astronomy telescopes is very expensive and no country can do astronomy all by itself, noting that China's telescopes like FAST and HXMT have become driving engines for new discoveries.

"I am very happy for my Chinese colleagues that your government is supporting basic science. This is very exciting that a large country like China is contributing enormously to modern science," he said..
Since its launch on June 15, 2017, HXMT has achieved a series of important scientific results on black holes, neutron stars and other objects or phenomena. The calibration of the detectors on board was supported by the National Institute of Metrology, Ferrara University in Italy and the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics.