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ЦитатаUpdated: August 14, 2013 23:22 ISTIndia to go alone with Chandrayaan 2P. SunderarajanChandrayaan 2, the second mission to the moon, would be an Indian programme, without any tie up with Russia.Minister of State in the Prime Minister's Office, V. Narayanasamy, on Wednesday confirmed this in reply to a written question in Rajya Sabha.Chandrayaan 2 was originally envisaged to be a joint mission between ISRO (Indian Space Research Organisation) and the Russian Federal Space Agency, Roscosmos.Under the agreement approved by the Central Government in September 2008, while ISRO was to provide for the launch by its workhorse, GSLV, as also the orbiter and the rover, the Russian agency was to provide the lander. The mission was scheduled for the current year.Following the failure of the Russian-led interplanetary mission, Phobos-Grant, a sample return mission to Phobos, one of the moons of Mars, the Russian agency reviewed their inter-planetary missions and decided to increase the mass of the moon lander.The Russian agency consequently suggested to ISRO two opportunities for launching of its Chandrayaan 2 rover - either 2015 or 2017 aboard Soyuz, the Russian spacecraft with a rider that the 2015 opportunity could involve mass limitation for the rover and entitle a higher risk.In the wake of these inputs, the ISRO conducted a high level review of the Chandrayaan 2 programme under the chairmanship of Prof. U.R.Rao. The study recommended that India could itself realise a lander module in a few years and that it could go in for the mission on its own.In his reply, Mr. Narayanasamy said the details of changes in the configuration and the mission profile were being finalised and the payloads of the lander would be finalised in due course taking into account the weight, volume and power constraints of the lander.Later speaking to The Hindu, a senior ISRO official said the work on the programme was progressing apace and the mission is likely to take place in three years.
ЦитатаIndia Drops Russia from Chandrayaan-2 Lunar Mission By K.S. Jayaraman | Aug. 15, 2013 Chandrayaan-1 in lunar orbit. Credit: ISRO artist's conceptBANGALORE, India — Fallout from a failed Russian planetary mission in 2011 has led India to go it alone on would be its second mission to the Moon, a senior Indian government official announced Aug. 14.As conceived in 2008, the Chandrayaan-2 mission was to include a Russian-supplied lander along with an Indian rover and orbiter, all launched on an Indian rocket. But the failure of Russia's Phobos-Grunt mission led the Russian space agency, Roscosmos, to propose changes to Chandrayaan-2 that led India to reconsider the joint effort, according to V. Narayanaswamy, a government minister.Phobos-Grunt, intended to return samples from the martian moon Phobos, was launched November 2011 but never made it out of Earth orbit due to a propulsion system failure. The spacecraft assembly, which also included a Chinese-built Mars orbiter, re-entered the atmosphere and was destroyed in January.Speaking at the Indian Parliament in New Delhi, Narayanaswamy said that in the wake of the Phobos-Grunt failure Roscosmos proposed changes designed to increase the reliability of its hardware. The revised plan necessitated an increase in the mass of the lander, which would have required the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) to decrease the mass, and consequently the reliability of, its rover, he said.Narayanaswamy said Russia's proposed changes "called for a major programmatic re-alignment" and that this prompted ISRO to conduct a review to critically assess its own capability to design and deploy a landing craft. "The integrated review of Chandrayaan-2 recommended that India could realize the Lander module in the next few years," he said. "Currently the spacecraft is being reconfigured for the proposed Indian Rover and Lander modules."According to the minister, ISRO has already made some progress with the development of rover module and a few scientific instruments to be flown to the Moon. "Some experimental studies for the Moon Lander have also been undertaken at ISRO," he said."The details of changes in the configuration and the mission profile are under finalization," Narayanaswamy said. "The payloads on the Lander — that may possibly include a seismometer — will be finalized in due course taking into account the weight, volume and power constraints of the Lander."Chandrayaan-2 is the follow-on to India's first planetary mission, Chandrayaan-1, which successfully reached lunar orbit in late 2008 and operated for almost a year before overheating caused a premature termination of the mission, which nonetheless was declared a success.Chandrayaan-2 was originally scheduled to launch in 2013. A new launch date for the mission has not been announced.
Цитата15.08.2013 Индия может запустить к Луне станцию "Чандраян-2" без участия России Индия рассматривает возможность запуска к Луне космического аппарата "Чандраян-2" без участия в проекте России, говорится в сообщении индийского правительственного космического департамента. "Чандраян-2" будет миссией, которую Индия проведет самостоятельно без России... После неудачи российской межпланетной миссии "Фобос-Грунт" Роскомос принял решения, направленные на повышение надежности межпланетных полетов. Это приведет к увеличению массы лунного посадочного модуля (для "Чандраян-2")", — говорится в сообщении. "Роскосмос предложил Индийской организации космических исследований (ISRO) подготовить индийский луноход к пуску в 2015 или 2017 году, а также заявил, что при пуске 2015 года масса лунохода нужно будет ограничить, а сам пуск будет сопровождаться более серьезным риском... Поэтому нами был проведен комплексный пересмотр программы "Чандраян-2", чтобы критически оценить наши возможности по созданию и выводу в космос (собственного индийского) посадочного модуля в ближайшее время", — сказано в заявлении департамента, сделанном в ответ на запрос одного из членов верхней палаты парламента. Детали изменений в миссии "Чандраян-2" пока согласовываются. Как сообщала ранее ISRO, станция "Чандраян-2" должна состоять из двух модулей — орбитального и посадочного. Российская сторона должна была разработать посадочный модуль, который доставит на поверхность спутника Земли небольшой автоматический луноход. Планировалось, что "Чандраян-2" отправится к Луне в 2013 году. Однако после неудачи с "Фобос-Грунтом" в 2011 году ее перенесли. Проект "Чандраян-2" является продолжением индийской лунной программы, начатой аппаратом "Чандраян-1", который был запущен к Луне в октябре 2008 года. Этот аппарат проработал на лунной орбите 312 дней, а также отправил на ее поверхность ударный зонд, передает РИА Новости. К.И.
ЦитатаВторой индийский лунный зонд Chandrayaan-2 будет запущен в конце 2016 г. – начале 2017 г., сообщил в субботу президент Индийской организации космических исследований д-р К. Радхакришнан (K Radhakrishnan). Согласно предварительным планам, посадочный модуль космического аппарата должен совершить мягкую посадку на поверхность Луны.
ЦитатаСтанция «Чандраян-2» будет изучать Луну с орбиты. В состав миссии входит также небольшой автоматический луноход (ровер) весом от 30 до 100 кг, который планировалось доставить на Луну посадочным модулем российской станции «Луна-Ресурс». Предполагается, что он сможет проработать на Луне две—три недели.
ЦитатаWorks on Chandrayaan-2 craft, India's second moon mission, have intensified. Scientists are speeding up activities on the orbiter, lander and rover configuration. The design of the indigenous lander and the configuration study has been completed by the Space Applications Centre (SAC) and the integration work will be done in Bengaluru.Chandrayaan-2 is India's second mission to moon, following the first one launched in October 2008. It is totally an indigenous mission to be launched by GSLV-MkII. "This mission will also be primarily technological to prove our capability to land and to deploy and control the movement of a rover on lunar surface. The science goals of the mission are to further improve the understanding of origin and evolution of the Moon using instruments onboard orbiter and in-situ analysis of lunar samples using the lander and the rover," Indian Space Research Organisation (Isro) officials told Deccan Herald.СпойлерThe mission was to be a joint Indo-Russian project, but Russia withdrew after the failure of the Russian Phobos-Grunt mission to Mars. Some aspects connected with the Phobos-Grunt mission were also used in the lunar projects, which is why Russia cited its inability to provide the lander. India then decided to develop the lunar mission independently.Isro will design the orbiter, which will orbit the Moon at an altitude of 100 km. The mission will carry five instruments on the orbiter. Three of them are new, while two others are improved versions of those flown on Chandrayaan-1 orbiter. The payloads and sensors onboard the orbiter, lander and rover have been sel ected and are at various stages of development. The configuration changes in the orbiter for accommodating the indigenous lander have been addressed. Orbiter High resolution Camera is configured on orbiter to provide high quality images of the landing site area before the separation of lander fr om orbiter. The study team has identified the landing strategies for soft landing on the lunar surface and new technologies required for realising the lander. Unlike Chandrayaan-1's lunar probe, which impacted the Moon's surface, the lander will make a soft landing. The rover's mass will be about 30–100 kg and will operate on solar power. The rover will move on wheels on the lunar surface, pick up samples of soil or rocks, perform on-site chemical analysis and send the data to the orbiter above, which will relay it to the Earth station. [свернуть]
ЦитатаIsro is mulling use of nuclear technology to increase the life span of its second moon mission Chandrayaan-2, which is slated for lift-off in 2017. Significantly, the technology, which will use a very small amount of nuclear energy, will have no fission. Simply put, this system will ensure complete safety. It is believed Chandrayaan-2 will have a life span of one year. The spacecraft will be carried by the indigenously developed 3-stage Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV Mark 2), which — riding on a string of recent successes — has transformed from being Isro's "naughty boy" to the agency's "most adored boy". BARC director Sekhar Basu told TOI that his organization has already initiated studies regarding the use of nuclear technology in this mission. Спойлер"We have to start from the scratch as the required nuclear material is not available and nobody will give it to us. We have to develop them on our own in our reactorsand produce them artificially," he said. Basu, while acknowledging that the process could take time, said some aspects of the mission are still being worked out. The use of nuclear technology for this mission assumes significance as Chandrayaan-1's life span was cut short by nearly two months due to a technical problem. It was launched on October 22, 2008, with a 1-year mission life. However, it stopped communicating on August 29, 2009. The mission profile for Chandrayaan-2 includes an orbiter, lander and a rover, which will study the mineralogy of the lunar surface. On August 7, 2009, former Isro chief Madhavan Nair had told the media at IIT-B: "We are thinking of powering some parts of Chandrayaan-2 with nuclear power." However, in the past six years this plan had remained on paper following widespread apprehensions about use of nuclear technology in space missions. The plan has now been revived. According to nuclear experts, the advantage of a nuclear power system in a spacecraft is that it functions independently of sunlight, which is necessary for deep space exploration.[свернуть]
ЦитатаISRO is also working on its second lunar mission spacecraft, Chandrayaan-II, he /...ISRO chairman AS Kiran Kumar.../ said."Unlike Chandrayaan-I, we have planned a controlled descent of Chandrayaan-II which we intend to put into orbit by the end of next year or early part of 2018... We have already done development of Rover and Liner. Rover engineering version is undergoing test," he said.
ЦитатаZOOR пишет: А чего хотят от миссии? Лунного зайца переплюнуть?
ЦитатаOn August 7, 2009, former Isro chief Madhavan Nair had told the media at IIT-B: "We are thinking of powering some parts of Chandrayaan-2 with nuclear power." However, in the past six years this plan had remained on paper following widespread apprehensions about use of nuclear technology in space missions. The plan has now been revived.
ЦитатаНа 7 августа 2009 года, бывший глава Исро Мадхавана Наира рассказала журналистам в ИИТ-б: "мы думаем запитки некоторых частях Чандраян-2 с ядерной державой". Однако, в последние шесть лет этот план остался на бумаге следующие широко распространенные опасения по поводу использования ядерных технологий в космических полетах. Этот план был возрожден.
ЦитатаThe space road to Chandrayaan-2 is now clear. The significance of the Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV-F05) mission's success on Thursday is that the rocket is now more than qualified to put Chandrayaan-2 into orbit.The interfaces between GSLV-Mk II and Chandrayaan-2 have already been finalised, according to officials in the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO).A GSLV-Mk II vehicle will put Chandrayaan-2 with a lander and a rover into orbit in the first quarter of 2018. It will be a totally indigenous mission — the vehicle, the spacecraft, the lander and the rover are all made in India. The orbiter (that is, the spacecraft), the lander and rover together will weigh 3,280 kg. After the spacecraft is ins erted in to the lunar orbit, the lander with the rover inside it will separate and land softly on the moon's surface.The lander will have a throttleable engine for performing a soft landing and four sites have been short-listed for this. After it touches down on a flat surface on the moon, the 25-kg rover — which is a kind of a toy car — will emerge from it. It will have six wheels, made of aluminium, to move about on the lunar soil. The wheels will interact in such a way that the rover does not sink. The rover will move at a speed of two cm a second. Its lifetime on the moon is 14 earth days; it will have two payloads for analysing the soil's chemical properties.
ЦитатаThe Indian Space Research Organsiation started a series of ground and aerial tests linked to the critical Moon landing of Chandrayaan-2 on Friday, at its new site at Challakere in Chitradurga district, 400 km from Bengaluru.ISRO Satellite Centre or ISAC, the lead centre for the second Moon mission, has artificially created close to ten craters to simulate the lunar terrain and test the Lander's sensors.A small ISRO aircraft has been carrying equipment with sensors over these craters to plan the tasks ahead.СпойлерISRO, along with a host of other scientific and strategic agencies, owns vast land for its future missions at Challakere, in a 'Science City.'ISAC Director M.Annadurai told The Hindu, "The campaign for the Lander tests of Chandrayaan-2 has started. Tests are conducted over the simulated craters at Chitradurga. We are using an aircraft to assess whether the sensors on the Lander will do their job [later] of identifying the landing spot on the Moon."Chandrayaan-2 is tentatively set for late 2017 or early 2018 and includes soft-landing on Moon and moving a rover on its surface.'Complicated task'Landing on an alien surface is very complicated, said Dr. Annadurai, who was also the Project Director for the successful Chandrayaan-1 lunar mission of 2008.In the coming months up to March, ISAC would conduct many tests: on avionics and electronics; testing the Lander's legs, followed by a combined full test, at Bengaluru and Chitradurga.The mission includes an Orbiter, a Lander and a Rover, all being readied at ISAC in Bengaluru. The Orbiter spacecraft when launched from Sriharikota will travel to the Moon and release the Lander, which will in turn deploy a tiny Rover to roam the lunar surface — all three sending data and pictures to Earth.[свернуть]
Цитата"The life expectancy of the lander and the orbiter as estimated now is one (Earth) day, which means 14 lunar days."
ЦитатаIndian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) has started a series of ground tests for testing the performance of sensors and actuators for soft landing of the Lander on the lunar surface.Special tests for new systems in Lander have been identified and a Lander Sensors Performance Test over artificial craters created in Chitradurga district in Karnataka, has been conducted. Lunar Terrain Test facility is ready for Lander drop test and Rover mobility tests.ISRO is working towards the launch of Chandrayaan-2 during the first quarter of 2018. The Chandrayaan-2 comprises of indigenous Orbiter, Lander and Rover. After reaching the 100 km lunar orbit, the Lander housing the Rover will separate from the Orbiter. After a controlled descent, the Lander will soft land on the lunar surface at a specified site and deploy a Rover. The instruments on the rover will collect data for analysis of the lunar soil.This information was provided by the Union Minister of State (Independent Charge) Development of North-Eastern Region (DoNER), MoS PMO, Personnel, Public Grievances & Pensions, Atomic Energy and Space, Dr Jitendra Singh in a written reply to a question in Rajya Sabha today.
ЦитатаIn what will be its next step to reach, land on and explore the Moon, the Indian Space Research Organisation (Isro) is gearing up to launch its space science and planetary exploration mission, Chandrayaan-2, on a GSLV MKII launch vehicle, in the first quarter of 2018.The Chandrayaan-2 spacecraft is a composite module consisting of Orbiter, Lander and Rover. Unlike the Chandrayaan-1, where Moon Impact Probe (MIP) crash-landed on the surface of the Moon, the Chandrayaan-2 will soft-land its Lander with Rover on the lunar surface to conduct the next level of scientific studies.