Автор che wi, 06.01.2014 22:46:44
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Цитатаhttp://www.spacenews.com/article/civil-space/41380solar-probe-plus-nasa's-'mission-to-the-fires-of-hell'-trading-atlas-5-forGREENBELT, Md. -- Solar Probe Plus, a flagship heliophysics mission NASA expects to cost some $1.5 billion to build and launch around July 2018, needs a bigger rocket than United Launch Alliance's Atlas 5, according to a senior official at the Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory in Laurel, Maryland, where the solar observatory is being built. "The plan we had was to go on an Atlas 5, but the problem is that required us to develop a new, high-performance custom upper stage, and that represented a fairly significant risk for the project," Michael Ryschkewitsch, head of APL's Space Sector, said in a July 22 interview here. "Our team made the case to NASA headquarters that the overall risk to the mission would be lowered if we went to a heavy-class launch vehicle. The obvious players right now are Delta 4 Heavy and Falcon Heavy.""The decision to allow the consideration of a Heavy-class vehicle for Solar Probe Plus was made by the Science Mission Directorate in the spring of 2014 based on input from the Project and advice from Launch Services," James Norman, NASA's director of launch services, said July 25 via email. He declined to comment on why NASA cleared the program to procure a bigger launch vehicle, saying "the specifics associated with the decision are procurement sensitive and competition sensitive data."Trading up to a Delta 4 Heavy or Falcon Heavy means the money paid to ATK Missile Products of Beltsville, Maryland, for work on the customized kick-stage motor, known as STAR 48GXV, was a wasted effort for Solar Probe Plus. APL spokesman Michael Buckley said July 23 that ATK was paid $15.7 million for the work, which culminated with a December test firing of the solid-fueled STAR motor. The flight-proven Delta 4 Heavy is Denver-based ULA's most powerful launcher, typically used for the largest classified national security satellites. Falcon Heavy, which is still in development at SpaceX, features a first stage composed of three nine-engine Falcon 9 core stages.Falcon Heavy's first launch is planned for 2015. SpaceX advertises the rocket as the most powerful launcher since the Saturn 5, able to lift 53 metric tons to low Earth orbit at one-third the cost of a Delta 4 Heavy.
ЦитатаNASA has selected the United Launch Alliance (ULA) to loft its Solar Probe Plus (SPP) mission to study the Sun's outer atmosphere. The July, 2018 launch will utilize ULA's Delta IV Heavy rocket, augmented by Orbital ATK's Star-48 solid motor as a third stage, in order to cope with the extremely high energy required for this flagship mission.To achieve its goals, SPP will orbit the sun 24 times, closing to within 3.9 million miles of its surface with the help of seven Venus flybys.At its closest passes the probe will speed 118 miles per second through the sun's outer atmosphere, or corona, to explore a region - and face hazards - no other spacecraft has encountered.ULA beat out other launch providers to win the right to launch the mission - citing a competitive procurement that considered multiple companies. NASA's Launch Services Program (LSP), managing the campaign, announcing the total contract award amount for launch services is $389.1 million."The ULA team is very proud that NASA has selected the Delta IV Heavy launch vehicle for this extraordinary science mission," noted Jim Sponnick, ULA vice president, Atlas and Delta Programs.Due to the high energy requirements for this mission, a third stage will top off the propulsive elements. This will be in the form of Orbital ATK's Star-48 solid rocket motor.
ЦитатаNASA's Solar Probe Plus mission -- which will fly closer to the sun than any spacecraft has before -- reached a major milestone last month when it successfully completed its Critical Design Review, or CDR.An independent NASA review board met at the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, or APL, in Laurel, Maryland, March 16-20, 2015, to review all aspects of the mission plan. APL has designed and will build and operate the spacecraft for NASA. The CDR certifies that the Solar Probe Plus mission design is at an advanced stage and that fabrication, assembly, integration and testing of the many elements of the mission may proceed.Solar Probe Plus is scheduled to launch aboard a United Launch Alliance Delta 4-Heavy rocket with an upper stage from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Florida. The launch window opens for 20 days starting on July 31, 2018. Over 24 orbits, the mission will use seven flybys of Venus to reduce its distance from the sun. The closest three will be just 3.8 million miles from the surface of the star.Scientists have long wanted to send a probe through the sun's outer atmosphere, or corona, to better understand the solar wind and the material it carries into our solar system. The primary science goals for the Solar Probe Plus mission are to trace the flow of energy and understand the heating of the solar corona and to explore the physical mechanisms that accelerate the solar wind and energetic particles.To meet those objectives, Solar Probe Plus will carry four instrument suites into the corona and study the solar wind and energetic particles as they blast off the surface of the star. These instruments will study magnetic fields, plasma, and energetic particles, and will image the solar wind. The instruments are: the Fields Experiment from the University of California Space Sciences Laboratory, Berkeley, California; the Integrated Science Investigation of the Sun from the Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio; the Solar Wind Electrons Alphas and Protons Investigation from the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, Cambridge, Massachusetts; and the Wide Field Imager for Solar Probe Plus from the Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C.The spacecraft and instruments will be protected from the sun's heat by a 4.5-inch-thick carbon-composite shield. During the closest passes around the sun, temperatures outside the spacecraft will reach nearly 2,500 degrees Fahrenheit.Solar Probe Plus is part of NASA's Living With a Star Program to explore aspects of the connected sun-Earth system that directly affect life and society. LWS is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland, for NASA's Science Mission Directorate in Washington.
ЦитатаНАСА в 2018 году отправит в космос зонд, который изучит Солнце© Инфографика . Алина ПолянинаВАШИНГТОН, 26 мая - РИА Новости. НАСА планирует летом 2018 года запустить космический исследовательский зонд, которому предстоит приблизиться к Солнцу на рекордно близкое расстояние, сообщило ведомство в пятницу."Запуск миссии Solar Probe Plus (SPP) запланирован на лето 2018", -- сообщает НАСА. Предварительно сообщается, что старт зонда запланирован на период между 31 июля и 19 августа на ракете-носителе Delta IV-Heavy.Аппарат достигнет расстояния 3,9 миллиона миль (6,2 миллиона километров) над поверхностью Солнца, приблизившись к звезде ближе, чем Меркурий. По утверждению НАСА, аппарат первым "потрогает" Солнце, поскольку будет в семь раз ближе к нему, чем другой когда-либо отправлявшийся к этой звезде человеком зонд.В ведомстве сообщают, что SPP "будет исследовать внешнюю атмосферу звезды и вести крайне важные наблюдения, которые ответят на существующие десятилетиями вопросы о ее физических характеристиках".В НАСА рассчитывают, что результаты исследований "улучшат прогнозы о том, как крупные явления в космической погоде влияют на Землю, спутники и (работу) астронавтов в космосе". Основная миссия зонда рассчитана на 11 дней, ее подробности будут обнародованы на следующей неделе.