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Go MSL!

Salo

Критика и самокритика:
http://www.dnaindia.com/india/report_flying-low-delayed-missions-a-few-orders-bog-isro-down_1682419
ЦитатаFlying low: Delayed missions, a few orders bog ISRO down[/size]
Published: Monday, Apr 30, 2012, 9:00 IST | Updated: Sunday, Apr 29, 2012, 23:54 IST
By Kumar Chellappan | Place: Chennai | Agency: DNA

Successive failures in meeting deadlines and too few orders from international customers have made the future of Indian Space Research Organisation look bleak, say top space scientists.

"ISRO has not won a single international order in the last 30 months. The orders for SARAL and SPOT- 6 satellites were won in 2008," says G Madhavan Nair, former chairman, ISRO. A polar satellite launch vehicle was scheduled to launch SARAL, an Indo-French venture, in early 2011.

Nair says the orders for launching SARAL, a French satellite, and SPOT-6, a satellite built by Astrium, the global majors, were won amid cut-throat competition during his tenure as the chairman of ANTRIX, ISRO's international marketing arm. ISRO itself has declared that the MoUs for launching the two were signed in 2007 and 2008 respectively.

Since Nair's retirement, the agency has not managed to win any new contract for launching or building satellites.

It may be recalled that ISRO had built HYLAS, a modern communication satellite for EADS-Astrium, the European space consortium. The satellite was launched into a geostationary orbit from the European space agency's spaceport at French Guyana in 2010. "That was the last major commercial order executed by ISRO. Since then, we have been launching mini and micro satellites for countries which are green horns in space science," says a senior ISRO scientist.

It is surprising that even the countries with whom India has friendly relations are shying away from ISRO and entrusting their space requirements to other countries," he added.

He was referring to Lockheed Martin, the US space giant, walking away with the order to build VINASAT-2, a communication satellite for Vietnam Posts and Telecommunications Group. VINASAT-2, to be launched by an Ariane rocket from French Guyana, will be used for telecommunication, DTH services and radio broadcast. It belongs to the INSAT and GSAT series of satellites built by ISRO.

However, S Satish, ISRO's official spokesman, disagrees and says, "We may not have commercial orders right now from foreign customers other than SPOT-6, but we are in discussions with international agencies for fabricating and launching satellites."

But Nair remains worried. "If this trend continues, ISRO engineers may have to start looking for new jobs," he says.

Another scientist from Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre, Thiruvananthapuram, says that all missions are running behind schedule and this is proving costly for the country. "We are losing credibility in the international arena in the backdrop of delayed missions," he says.[/size]
"Были когда-то и мы рысаками!!!"

Salo

http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/home/science/Indigenous-space-engine-test-Saturday/articleshow/13100716.cms
ЦитатаIndigenous space engine test Saturday[/size]
IANS | May 11, 2012, 11.08PM IST

BANGALORE: The Indian space agency will Saturday conduct a crucial test on an indigenously built cryogenic engine for launching its heavier rockets from its spaceport, a top official said Friday.

"The cryogenic acceptance test will take place Saturday in our Liquid Propulsion Systems Centre at Mahendragiri in Tamil Nadu. If it succeeds, we will use the cryogenic stage in the geostationary satellite launch vehicle (GSLV) rocket later this year," state-run Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) chairman K. Radhakrishnan told reporters here.

Th espace agency's attempt to use its first cryogenic engine April 15, 2010 to launch a communication satellite on board a GSLV was aborted as the heavy rocket plunged into the sea within minutes after blast-off from its Sriharikota spaceport, about 80 km north-east of Chennai.

"We have learnt a lot from the previous attempt and rectified the errors that caused the failure two years ago," Radhakrishnan admitted.

A cryogenic engine is a rocket motor that is fired by a mixture of liquid fuels (oxidiser) such as hydrogen and oxygen at very low temperatures of 20 degrees Kelvin and 90 degree Kelvin.

Buoyed by the success of its polar satellite launch vehicle (PSLV-C19) putting into a higher orbit its microwave radar imaging satellite (Risat-1) April 26, the space agency has drawn up an ambitious plan to launch a series of space missions over the next two years using a combination of lighter (PSLV) and heavier (GSLV) rockets, including an experimental flight of GSLV-Mark III.

"We have designed GSLV-Mark III to be self-reliant in launching four-five tonne communication satellites in the INSAT-4 series. The next generation rocket will also enhance our capability to be a competitive player in the multi-billion dollar commercial launch market," Radhakrishnan asserted on the occasion of the space agency's satellite centre (ISAC) herecompleting four decades (Ruby Year) of service.

The advanced rocket will have a multi-mission launch capability for geo-synchronous transfer orbit (GTO), low earth orbit (lEO), polar and intermediate circular orbits.

The Indo-French satellite (Megha-Tropiques), launched October 2011 to study the water cycle in the tropical atmosphere for assessing climate change, will release data from June, when the south-west monsoon in the Indian peninsula sets in.

"The data will be useful as it will give valuable information on the rainfall patterns," the chairman noted.

Though former ISRO chairmen UR Rao and K. Kasturirangan were present on the occasion to celebrate ISAC's Ruby Year, the absence of Radhakrishnan's immediate predecessor G. Madhavan Nair at the function was conspicuous.

Former ISAC director K.N. Shankara, who was also indicted in the ISRO-Devas Multimedia Services Ltd spectrum deal along with Nair and two other senior space scientists, was, however, present and felicitated by Radhakrishnan.[/size]
"Были когда-то и мы рысаками!!!"

instml

May 10, 2012

Ruby Year Celebrations at ISRO Satellite Centre, Bangalore

ЦитатаISRO Satellite Centre (ISAC), Bangalore, the lead Centre of ISRO for design, development, fabrication and testing of all Indian made satellites is celebrating its 40 years of fruitful existence on May 11, 2012. It was May 10, 1972 that the agreement between India and erstwhile USSR was signed to build the first Indian Satellite 'ARYABHATA'-which heralded the satellite activities in the country.



ISAC CampusSince then, the Centre has built more than 50 satellites that cover a wide spectrum of technologies and applications such as TV broadcasting, telecommunications, Tele-medicine, Distance education, Radio networking, Disaster warning and a number of remote sensing applications in natural resources survey, monitoring and management. Satellites built by ISAC are the key elements of national infrastructure.

From a modest beginning in the industrial sheds of Peenya, Bangalore, ISAC was shifted to its present main campus at HAL Airport Road in the 1980s. The ISRO Satellite Integration and Test Establishment (ISITE) was established in 2006 near Marathahalli for integration and testing of large, high power communication spacecrafts. The Center houses sophisticated design, development and fabrication facilities besides specialized R&D labs. A Space Research Facility (SRF) to augment the assembly and integration capacities and to support special projects of national importance is coming up at Chellakere, near Chitradurga.

ISAC Peenya CampusIn addition to building communication, remote sensing and space science application satellite, the centre has now embarked on a new programme to build satellites to provide navigation applications like position and timing services for civil aviation and strategic sectors.

It may be recollected that Chandrayaan-I, India's first mission to moon which made the path breaking discovery of water on moon, was built here. The Radar Imaging Satellite-1 (RISAT-1) which was launched on 26th April, 2012 is yet another feather on ISAC's cap. The Centre has more than 20 percent women engineers, including Project Directors of some major satellite projects.



Presently, under the leadership of Dr. T.K Alex, Director, ISAC more than 7 communication satellites, a meteorological satellite, space science missions like Chandrayaan-2, ASTROSAT and Space Capsule Recovery Experiment - 2 (SRE-2) and a Joint mission with France - SARAL are under various phases of execution. Many more satellites are in the planning phase.

The function will be inaugurated by Dr.K.Radhakrishnan, Chairman, ISRO, in Prof. Satish Dhawan Auditorium at the Centre. Pioneers of Indian Space Programme like Prof. U R Rao, Dr. K Kasturirangan, Former Chairmen of ISRO will grace the occasion.
http://isro.org/pressrelease/scripts/pressreleasein.aspx?May10_2012
Go MSL!

Salo

http://www.dnaindia.com/scitech/report_isro-successfully-tests-indigenous-cryogenic-engine_1687992
ЦитатаISRO successfully tests indigenous cryogenic engine[/size]
Published: Saturday, May 12, 2012, 21:23 IST
Place: Chennai | Agency: PTI

In a major step, ISRO today successfully tested the indigenous cryogenic engine to be used to propel the country's Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle.

The test was conducted at the Liquid Propulsion Systems Centre at Mahendragiri in Tamil Nadu's Tirunelveli district.

"The acceptance test of the indigenous cryogenic engine for the forthcoming GSLV-D5 flight was conducted successfully for 200 seconds at 17:10 hrs...," an ISRO statement said.

"The performance of the engine was as predicted," it said.

The maiden flight test of the indigenous cryogenic stage onboard GSLV-D3 failed in May 2010 after it developed a snag and the rocket plunged into the sea minutes after lift-off.

ISRO chief K Radhakrishnan had said last month that GSLV would undergo two more tests at the Mahendragiri facility.

He had also said ISRO was planning a GSLV launch with Indian cryogenic engine during September-October.

ISRO plans to fly two GSLV rockets at an interval of six months with the third one meant for the Chandrayaan-2 moon mission.[/size]
"Были когда-то и мы рысаками!!!"

Salo

http://www.dnaindia.com/india/report_isro-chief-counters-madhavan-nair-s-claims_1687621
ЦитатаISRO chief counters Madhavan Nair's claims[/size]
Published: Friday, May 11, 2012, 21:40 IST
Place: Bangalore | Agency: PTI

Countering claims made by his predecessor G Madhavan Nair, ISRO chief K Radhakrishnan on Friday said there may not have commercial orders right now from foreign customers other than SPOT-6 but the space agency is in discussions with global agencies for fabricating and launching satellites.

"Right now, we have the commercial order of SPOT-6 from foreign customers, but there has been very serious enquiries for a few dedicated launches (heavy satellites to be launched by PSLV). These are at discussion level at the moment," he said on the sidelines of 40 years of ISRO's existence.

Nair had said ISRO had not won a single international order in the last 30 months and the orders for SARAL and SPOT-6 satellites were won in 2008.

Nair also said the orders for launching SARAL, a French satellite, and SPOT-6, a satellite built by Astrium, the global majors, were won amid cut-throat competition during his tenure as the chairman of Antrix, ISRO's international marketing arm.

Talking to reporters, Radhakrishnan said the discussions would centre around "when they (foreign customers) want it and when ISRO would be ready to launch it." The Antrix is in the process of finalising this arrangement, he added.

On future launches, he said GSLV would undergo an acceptance test tomorrow at a special facility at the Liquid Propellant System Centre at Mahendragiri in Tamil Nadu.

"Thereafter the GSLV will undergo two more tests including an endurance test of 1,000 seconds at the same place."

Radhakrishnan said ISRO was confident of using an indigenous cryogenic engine to propel its Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicles (GSLV) by September this year.

ISRO would launch a low cost communication geo-stationary satellite GSAT-14 on board GSLV D5 this year. "GSAT-7 is scheduled for launch in few months time," he added.

Two more PSLV flights were on India's launch schedule in 2012. Astrium's commercial Spot 6 imaging satellite would be launched in August, and the SARAL altimetry mission developed by France and India, in October to measure global sea surface height, Radhakrishnan said.

Another PSLV would deploy the first dedicated Indian navigation satellite in orbit in early 2013, he said.

ISRO also plans to have GSAT-15 and GSAT-16 which would be a replica of GSAT-8 and GSAT-10, Radhakrishnan said.

ISRO Satellite Centre Director TK Alex said ISRO was planning to have a six ton satellite and right now the space organisation was focusing on designing aspects. "The six ton satellite will have 48 or even 60 transponders," he said.

It would take 30 to 36 months to complete "such a huge project and having six ton satellite makes economic sense," Alex said.

Asked the reason for Nair not being invited for ISRO's 40-year-celebrations, Alex said the former ISRO Chairman had sent a message about his unavailability.

The government has barred Nair and three other ISRO scientists from holding government posts for their alleged role in the controversial Antrix-Devas deal.[/size]
"Были когда-то и мы рысаками!!!"

Salo

http://www.business-standard.com/india/news/man-onmission/478193/
ЦитатаMan on a mission[/size]

With 17 launches in the last 30 months and another 26 coming up in the next two years, ISRO chairman K Radhakrishnan seems to have finally put last year's ugly spat over Devas behind him
Indulekha Aravind / Bangalore Jun 23, 2012, 00:23 IST

At a function to mark 40 years of the ISRO Satellite Centre (ISAC) in Bangalore last month, the agenda consisted of celebrating both the institution and the launch of RISAT-1, India's first microwave remote-sensing all-weather satellite, a few days ago. RISAT-1's success could not have come at a more opportune moment -- till then, ISRO had had little to celebrate in 2012. The year began on the worst-possible note for the illustrious space agency, with four of its senior scientists being blacklisted by the government over alleged irregularities in a deal to lease transponders to private firm Devas. In fact, one of them, former chairman Madhavan Nair, publicly declared that the organisation had gone to the dogs and that its current chairman and fellow-Malayali, Koppillil Radhakrishnan, did not know a satellite from a transponder.

But if the incident had left a bitter aftertaste, it was hardly tangible in ISAC's air-conditioned auditorium that day, with former chairman K Kasturirangan referring to the silver-haired Radhakrishnan as "Rads", and jokes being cracked by the luminaries gathered. The one discordant note, though not unexpected, was the absence of Nair on the dais. However, K N Shankara, one of the banned scientists, was present.

That is explained easily by Radhakrishnan when we meet a month later in his spacious office at Antariksh Bhawan, the Indian Space Research Organisation headquarters. Only former directors were on the dais, and Shankara happened to be one while Nair was not, says Radhakrishnan, who has discarded the black Nehru jacket, beige shirt and black trousers of that day for more formal full-sleeved, striped-blue shirt and dark trousers.

Nair may have courted the media when the controversy was raging, but Radhakrishnan, who had supported an investigation of the Antrix-Devas deal, had taken the opposite approach, barely commenting or granting interviews. The findings of the investigating committee, when made public later, seemed to vindicate the chairman's stand on the issue. But instead of being triumphant, Radhakrishnan merely chooses to say that there was nothing personal about any of it.

What Radhakrishnan does talk about at length is ISRO's future launches, and there seem to be plenty of them lined up. "The next two years are going to be full of activity -- we have 26 missions planned, of which two have been completed," says the 62-year-old who took over as chairman in October 2009. Apart from the launch of RISAT-1, ISRO also completed a ground test for its indigenous cryogenic engine last month. Next up will be the commercial launch of a French satellite, SPOT 6, using PSLV C21 in August, and a slew of other launches including the Indian Regional Navigation System, a constellation of seven satellites that will enable India to have its own regional navigation system, the first of which should be launched in early 2013. Besides these will be a series of communication satellites such as GSAT 10, GSAT 7, GSAT 15 & 16, GSAT 7A, GSAT 6 and a meteorological satellite, INSAT 3D.

* * *

The launch of RISAT-1 was a major landmark in the country's space programme which is now in its 50th year, says Radhakrishnan, who joined the Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre in Thiruvananthapuram as an avionics engineer in 1971, after a degree in electrical engineering from Kerala University. "Microwave remote-sensing gives us the ability for day and night, all-weather imaging for the first time. It is also one of the most complex satellites ISRO has built," he elaborates. Images from the satellite will be particularly useful in agriculture and in monitoring natural disasters like floods.

But however critical the success of RISAT-1 was, it is the launch of the Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV) with an indigenous cryogenic stage and engine that everyone will be watching out for. With high-profile missions such as Chandrayaan 2, the next moon mission, and the human space flight, as well as the launches of several satellites all hinging on it, a successful flight of the GSLV is crucial for the future of the country's space programme. ISRO has attempted seven GSLV missions since the programme was initiated in 1992 of which, in Radhakrishnan's own words, three-and-a-half have been successful. However, the two most recent, both conducted in 2010, failed -- the one in April because of a fault with the Indian cryogenic stage and the other in December due to a flaw in the Russian cryogenic stage. The chairman emphasises that there is no flaw in the GSLV design, and that the faults have always been with a component or a small subsystem. "Detailed failure analysis was done, and several modifications and improvements have been carried out." Following the successful acceptance test of the cryogenic engine last month, two more major ground-level tests will be done. The space agency plans to have the cryogenic engine and stage ready by October for the launch of GSLV D5 in December. An experimental flight of GSLV Mark III (without the active cryogenic stage), for launching communication satellites of 4 tonne (compared to GSLV's 2.2 tonne capacity), is scheduled for the second quarter of 2013.

There are many who feel the real litmus test of his chairmanship will be these GSLV flights. U R Rao, who helmed ISRO from 1984 to 1994, does not mince words when he says, "Radhakrishnan is a very good man and has been with ISRO for a long period, but we will have to see what he does now -- GSLV has to succeed, and we have to have our own cryogenic engine."

But if he is nervous about GSLV, Radhakrishnan does not show it. "There is a very high level of confidence for the next flight of GSLV, which will carry the communication satellite GSAT 14," he says.

* * *

Chandrayaan 2, which will be an Indo-Russian venture with the Russians providing the lander module and India doing everything else, is scheduled for a 2014 launch. Everything for the flight is on track, says the chairman, but he stresses that GSLV must have at least two successful flights before that.

The manned mission is a little more iffy. The space agency was originally looking to put a two-member crew in space for seven days, which could be done with the GSLV. But the focus has now shifted to GSLV Mark III as the launch vehicle since it will have better mass and volume, and will be able to carry three astronauts. Whichever the vehicle, it would need to be "human-rated" and absolutely reliable, something that still eludes ISRO. "We have not announced a programme for the human space flight because there is no point in doing so in the absence of a proper vehicle," Radhakrishnan says candidly. "But we are working on all the technology critical for the flight, such as the crew module with environmental control and life support system."

Competition on the international front, meanwhile, is hotting up with China having successfully achieved its first manned space docking on Monday, with one of the three astronauts being that country's first woman in space.

ISRO's other initiatives include enhancing the country's transponder capacity, an orbiter for Mars, the Aditya mission to observe the sun, a space research complex in Chitradurga in Karnataka, a space technology park near Sriharikota in Tamil Nadu and a third launch pad at Sriharikota. Radhakrishnan says two other priorities are developing industry's capability so that the Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle and some of the communication satellites, for example, can be produced by players outside the space agency which would allow ISRO to focus more on research-oriented activities, and greater involvement of academic institutions, which can be developed as centres of excellence for space research. The space agency, which currently has 18,000 employees, is also looking to prepare its next generation of leaders, he says.

* * *

While his predecessor Nair may have been more charismatic and popular, Radhakrishnan's strength is his administrative skills, say colleagues. "Radhakrishnan is a very good administrator, who handles issues boldly. He is a management expert who knows how to motivate people and take everybody along," says T K Alex, the current director of ISRO Satellite Centre. After joining ISRO, Radhakrishnan had taken a sabbatical for an MBA from the Indian Institute of Management, Bangalore. "Unlike others, he is both a scientist and a manager, and is using the skills he learnt at IIM-B effectively," says Alex. Radhakrishnan later went on to complete a PhD from IIT Kharagpur.

Though he has his hands full, Radhakrishnan manages to find time to practice Carnatic music, one of his passions, for a couple of hours during weekends. He usually performs at the annual Chemabai music festival at the famous Guruvayoor temple in Kerala and adds with a laugh that his colleagues complain he plays only classical music on drives to various ISRO centres. He had to abandon his other passion, kathakali, in 1993 because he was unable to find time for it.

Radhakrishnan is known to be devout and sees no conflict between religion and science. "I have been to Sabarimala 50 times," he says with pride, referring to the annual pilgrimage to the temple in Kerala, which is preceded by 41 days of fasting and austerity. Radhakrishnan even collected the order appointing him ISRO chairman from Guruvayoor temple, having got it faxed there. Spending time with family is a casualty though. The job, he says, involves a lot of travelling -- so the joke is that when he is at home, it is as if he is visiting. Radhakrishnan's wife is a retired bank officer; the couple have no children.

Coming back to the period of turbulence at ISRO earlier this year, the chairman denies that employee morale was affected. "We completed an unprecedented 17 missions in 30 months -- this cannot happen unless employee morale is high," is his argument, though Rao says "bad feelings" persist in the organisation. "For this job, you need not only grit and determination, but nerves of steel," says Radhakrishnan. With so much riding on the launch of GSLV in a few months, nothing less will suffice.[/size]
"Были когда-то и мы рысаками!!!"

Salo

http://zeenews.india.com/news/space/isro-mulling-hiving-off-satellite-production-to-industry_783612.html
ЦитатаISRO mulling hiving off satellite production to industry[/size]
Last Updated: Sunday, June 24, 2012, 16:06

ISRO mulling hiving off satellite production to industry New Delhi: As it prepares for Moon and Mars missions, ISRO is planning to hive off production of communication satellites and polar satellite launch vehicles (PSLV) to the industry.

The space agency is keen to focus on unique science projects, develop remote sensing satellites and do more R&D instead of engaging in the repetitive exercise of building communication satellites and launch vehicles.

"We want to explore the possibility of 'producing' PSLV and communication satellites through the industry," K Radhakrishnan, Chairman of Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) told PTI in an interview here.

The ISRO and its commercial arm Antrix Corporation have called for a meeting with the industry in September in Bangalore for a dialogue on the proposal and identify different work models.

"We want to find out what models could work out and evolve a plan. There is lot of repetition in building communication satellites," he said.

The industry participation in development of communication satellites is up to 80 per cent. If satellites and launch vehicles can be produced by industry players, ISRO scientists will be able to concentrate on research-oriented activities, and have greater involvement of academic institutions.

On plans for the immediate future, Radhakrishnan said ISRO was developing powerful satellites which can have more number of transponders required for a slew of applications ranging from tele-medicine to DTH services. Radhakrishnan said the recently launched GSAT-8 was a 6,000 Watt satellite and ISRO was developing a 8,000 Watt GSAT-11 which would be ready in the next two years.

"In five years time, we aim to develop a 10,000 Watt communication satellite which can accommodate 60-70 transponders," he said. GSAT-8 has 24 transponders.

The 10,000 watt satellite will also have the next generation high frequency Ka-band transponders.

ISRO has come a long way since the 1981 launch of its first Geo-Stationary Satellite 'APPLE' which had two transponder and a mission life of two years.

On the targets for this year, Radhakrishnan said ISRO will launch the heaviest foreign satellite -- the French-made SPOT-6 -- in August. This will be followed by Indo-French satellite SARAL for monitoring the environment.

Alongside, ISRO has planned key ground tests for its indigenously developed cryogenic engine for the Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV).

It includes a 1,000-second endurance test for the cryogenic stage and ignition of the cryogenic engine in vacuum. "Success of these tests is a pre-condition for the December launch of the GSLV," Radhakrishnan said.

The delay in developing the GSLV means a delay in India's much touted sequel to the Chandrayaan-I moon mission. ISRO plans to land a rover on the lunar surface to study the earth's only natural satellite.

"Two successful GSLV flights are necessary before the launch of Chandrayaan-II. We do not want to take any chances," Radhakrishnan said.

This also means putting off the Mars mission at a later opportunity. Earlier, ISRO was eyeing November, 2013 for launching its mission to Mars.

"We have three opportunities --- 2013, 2016 and 2018. So, we will come to Mars after sometime," Radhakrishnan said.[/size]
"Были когда-то и мы рысаками!!!"


Salo

http://www.dnaindia.com/india/report_blame-russia-for-delaying-indias-moon-mission_1713842
ЦитатаBlame Russia for delaying India's moon mission[/size]
Published: Thursday, Jul 12, 2012, 9:44 IST
By Hemanth CS | Place: Bangalore | Agency: DNA

India's second moon mission, Chandrayaan-2, has been further postponed to 2014. And this time, it's due to Russia, which has prioritized a mission of its own and delayed developing the lander (which would touch down on the moon surface to allow the rover to carry out exploratory and scientific work) for the mission.

This has been revealed by the parliamentary standing committee on science & technology's report on demands for grants (2012-2013).

The report states that while interacting with the department of space, the committee headed by T Subbramani Reddy raised a query regarding the constant rescheduling of Chandrayaan -2 programme. "In response to the query, the department stated that Chandrayaan-2 involves a complex work of sending a lander and a robot to moon for doing experiment on this satellite.

The department further stated that the lander is made by Russia while the rover is made in India. While narrating further on the issue, the department pointed out that due to reprioritisation of certain programme by Russia, the Chandrayaan -2 programme has been postponed to 2014," the report states.

The Russian Mars Mission launched last year had failed and this setback is said to have prompted Russia to prioritise its mission over the Chandrayaan-2.

This apart, the three recent failures of the Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV) have also contributed to the delay on the part of the Isro. Chandrayaan-2 will be launched onboard a GSLV.

"Recent three failures in GSLV flights have placed the department in a disadvantageous position to prove the reliability of GSLV mission, which is now taking time," the department said in its response.

Meanwhile, the committee has said that after going through the aforesaid reply of the department, it is of the opinion that preparation of an optimistic schedule for missions like Chandrayaan -2 alone is not sufficient but what is required is the will and dedication to complete the mission target within the time schedule.

"If time schedule does not inspire the confidence of the team and is seen by it as an unrealistic target, it will hardly serve any purpose. The department should fix time schedules in a more realistic way, rather than fixing time schedules which are not to be adhered.

"The committee feels that failure to adhere to programme schedule sends a wrong message to the public and lowers their confidence in our capability to take our space programme to new heights," states the report.[/size]
http://ria.ru/science/20120712/697748873.html#ixzz20RHHLKPr
ЦитатаСМИ: РФ задерживает реализацию индийского лунного проекта "Чандраян-2"[/size]

15:12 12/07/2012

НЬЮ-ДЕЛИ, 12 июл - РИА Новости, Евгений Пахомов. Запуск индийского космического аппарата "Чандраян-2" к Луне откладывается на год - до 2014 года из-за России, которая также принимает участие в подготовке этой миссии и задерживает реализацию своей части программы, сообщает в четверг индийское издание Daily News and Analysis (DNA).

По информации СМИ, об этом говорится в отчете парламентского комитета по науке и технологии. Издание указывает, что российская сторона намерена сконцентрироваться на собственных космических проектах, чем и объясняется эта задержка.

Ранее планировалось, что индийская станция "Чандраян-2" отправится к спутнику Земли в 2013 году. По информации Индийской организации космических исследований (ISRO), эта станция должна состоять из двух модулей - орбитального и посадочного. В подготовке индийской лунной миссии принимает участие Российское комическое агентство - российская сторона должна разработать посадочный модуль, который доставит на поверхность спутника Земли небольшой автоматический луноход.

Проект "Чандраян-2" является продолжением индийской лунной программы, начатой аппаратом "Чандраян-1", который был запущен к Луне в октябре 2008 года. Этот аппарат проработал на лунной орбите 312 дней, а также отправил на ее поверхность ударный зонд.[/size]
"Были когда-то и мы рысаками!!!"

Salo

http://articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com/2012-06-30/india/32483291_1_t-k-alex-chandrayaan-1-space-systems
ЦитатаIsro Satellite Centre gets new director[/size]
Arun Ram, TNN Jun 30, 2012, 05.59PM IST

CHENNAI: S K Shivakumar, scientist and associate director, of Isro Satellite Centre (Isac), Bangalore, on Saturday took over as the director of the centre, replacing T K Alex. Isac is Indian Space Research Organisation's premier centre for conceptualisation, design, fabrication, testing, integration and in-orbit commissioning of satellite systems involving various cutting-edge technologies.

Shivakumar began his carrier in Isro by joining Isro Telemetry, Tracking and Command Network (ISTRAC) in 1976 at Sriharikota and later served Isac for two decades (1978-1998) during which he was involved in mission planning, analysis and operations of several Indian satellite missions including Bhaskara, APPLE, IRS and Insat. He served as mission director for IRS-1B and IRS-1C satellites which successfully completed a decade of operations in orbit.

From September 1998 to November 2010, Shivakumar was director, Isro Telemetry, Tracking and Command Network (Istrac), which maintains the large constellation of Indian remote sensing satellites in orbit and provides support to satellite launch vehicle missions with a worldwide network of ground stations.

Shivakumar was also the project director for realising India's first indigenous deep space network antenna that measures 32 meters (100 feet) in diameter at Byalalu near Bangalore. This antenna was used for communicating with Chandrayaan-1, India's first mission to the moon, and will also serve future deep space missions. Besides, he played a key role in realising the entire ground segment for Chandrayaan-1 mission including the Indian Space Science Data Centre at Byalalu.

An postgraduate in physical engineering from the Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, Shivakumar has represented Isro in several national and international committees, advisory groups and conferences, including United Nations Committee on Peaceful Use of Outer Space, Vienna, Inter-Operability Plenary and Inter-agency Operations Advisory Group. His current research interests are in the areas of highly capable space systems, autonomy in space systems and large antenna systems.[/size]
"Были когда-то и мы рысаками!!!"

Salo

http://www.thehindu.com/sci-tech/science/article3588871.ece
Цитата

Scientist and associate director of the Indian Space
Research Organisation Satellite Centre S. K. Shivakumar
took over as its director on Saturday.
"Были когда-то и мы рысаками!!!"

Salo

http://indrus.in/articles/2012/06/25/space_india_trailing_china_in_the_long_march_16044.html
ЦитатаSpace: India trailing China in the long march[/size]
June 25, 2012
Rakesh Krishnan Simha

India's space conquest hopes that had risen high after the success of the Chandrayaan mission are coming to terms with gravity even as China notches up major milestones.
Space: India trailing China in the long march
Source: AFP

If there is a space race between India and China, it isn't a close one. Beijing sent its first astronaut into space in 2003 and in June 2012 Liu Yang became the first Chinese woman to enter the final frontier. In comparison India's first manned space flight is unlikely to happen by the 2016 deadline.

The gap of more than a decade between the two Asian giants isn't as worrisome as it seems. After all, the Chinese aren't unduly concerned about America's 40-year head start. Rapid advances in technology can compress development time frames, making it easy for large nations to catch up.

What should worry us is New Delhi's cavalier attitude towards such a vital sector. Paucity of funds has been a key factor holding back India's manned space flight programme. The $1.6 billion allocation to the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) in this year's budget was the highest ever, and is only a meagre increase over last year's $1.45 billion. That amounts to just 3 percent of the funding earmarked by the US space programme.

Compare that to the $5 billion in developmental aid pledged to Afghanistan. You don't have to be a rocket scientist to figure out which investment - space or Afghanistan - will pay better dividends.

At any rate, it is scandalous that a country with a GDP of over $4,500 billion has a shoestring space budget from which ISRO has to pay its 16,000 employees - before it build rockets or moon rovers.

Incidentally, the extraordinary success of India's first expedition to the moon was achieved for the ridiculously low cost of $83 million whereas a similar America mission in 2010 was tagged at more than $700 million.

Space - on the back burner

One probable reason for such shockingly low funding is that India's highly indigenised space sector doesn't offer scope for king-sized kickbacks, as is common in defence deals. Space, therefore, is a low priority area for the political leadership.

The degree of step-motherly treatment meted out to ISRO can be judged from the fact that the scientists and engineers behind Chandrayaan, India's first deep space mission, which discovered water on the moon, were conspicuously missing from the national awards. And adding insult to injury, Prime Minister Manmohan Singh's doctor, with no known contribution to the nation, got an award.

The Indian space programme has also been hamstrung by decades of US-led sanctions. Unlike in, say, telecom, where Indian companies can import entire systems from European or Chinese companies, in the space sector ISRO has had to reinvent the wheel. This virtual boycott increases the time frame for manufacturing satellites and rockets.

This is where India's leadership has let the nation down. Western countries denied India high technology for reasons of self-interest, but what was New Delhi doing during the heady days of India-Russia bonhomie? Indeed, if Moscow could be relied upon to come to India's aid in the event of war - as it did in 1971 - what prevented New Delhi from asking for the transfer of space technology? Didn't Mao Zedong kickstart China's space programme with lavish help from Moscow? I believe it is our warped sense of Gandhian self-flagellation that prevented us from circumventing those discriminatory sanctions.

Nations beg, borrow and steal the technology they lack. In the 18th century, the British learned how to make better rockets, ships and steel from India. More recently, captured German scientists largely formed the basis of rocketry at NASA. (The joke was that in the race to put the first man in space, the Americans lost despite working the Germans 24 hours a day because Stalin was flogging the Russian scientists 48 hours a day.)

Missing the sale of the century

India missed the sale of the 20th century in 1991 when Russia desperate for cash was hawking the crown jewels of its space industry. Key technologies which sent the first man into space and made Russia the world's leading space faring nation, and which were locked away in secret cities, overnight became available to the highest bidder. Heat shields, re-entry capsules, cosmonaut suits, orbital docking systems, miniature nuclear reactors - Moscow had them all on sale.

NASA seized the opportunity to buy 150 of the world's largest rocket engines, which were built in the early 1970s for the aborted Russian moon landings. These rockets will be at the core of its post-Shuttle programme. An American administration official said back then, "A few years ago, we were trying to steal these technologies. To miss the opportunity would be insane."

However, it was China that carted away everything it could lay its hands on. Just 12 years later, Beijing was able to send a two-man crew into orbit. There is no evidence that India's leadership was even aware of all this.

China: Boost phase

Liu Yang's space docking mission is significant because it is the first step in building China's permanent space station. In a briefing paper for the Massachusetts-based Union of Concerned Scientists, Gregory Kulacki explains that the Chinese have a 30-year plan to construct a national space station. "The plan emerged from a contentious internal debate that began in March 1986 and engaged hundreds of Chinese experts in many fields, as well as the leadership of numerous Chinese institutions," he says.

Interestingly, when the Chinese political leadership finally decided to approve the initial phase of the plan, space professionals believed they would be latecomers to an expanding human presence in low Earth orbit. Ironically, things have panned out differently - China will be the only country to have a permanent presence in space when the International Space Station, operated mainly by the US and Russia, is abandoned and de-orbited in 2020.

To be sure, in 1989 when former American president Ronald Reagan launched the grandly named Star Wars programme, at first the Chinese military and communist party leadership feared they would get left behind in the tit-for-tat battle between Washington and Moscow.

However, after the initial jitters, the Chinese refused to be swayed by emotions. Perceived international status was important to the Chinese leadership and military brass, but as Kulacki points out, "that status was conceived as a demonstration of the political will to build a comprehensive and competitive national space infrastructure, not the specific ability to put people in space, or to send them to a specific destination, such as the moon".

Indeed, China's desire to be recognised as a major space-faring nation, measured by both national capability and commitment to human spaceflight, was the deciding factor.

India: Low orbit

India's space programme has been a matter of tremendous pride for its people. Flush with Chandrayaan's success, ISRO engineers want to make a bold play for the heavens. But there's a problem - the PSLV rocket that propelled Chandrayaan to the moon is not big enough to transport humans. That is the job of the heavy lift GSLV, India's biggest rocket, on which rests the fate of India's manned missions. The GSLV programme has been plagued by a series of launch failures, which makes it the sort of vehicle you would rather let your mother-in-law ride.

It is a bizarre situation where India's future astronauts are undergoing training, near Bangalore, but the rocket that will take them to space is far from ready. The serious glitches involved in the GSLV programme could have been easily avoided if India, instead of trying to reinvent everything, had acquired Russian technology back in the 1970s - through the back door.

Currently, China's massive state-run space exploration programme and America's post-NASA private players are preparing to rush into the final frontier. Even as the stage is being readied for the colonisation of the moon and Mars, India continues to operate in low earth orbit.[/size]
"Были когда-то и мы рысаками!!!"

Salo

http://articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com/2012-06-24/special-report/32393054_1_mars-project-robotic-missions-moon-mission
ЦитатаIndia's march to Mars[/size]
Atul Sethi, TNN Jun 24, 2012, 05.06AM IST

Exactly 42 days from now, on August 6, a visitor will descend on one of earth's closest planetary neighbours using a complex sky crane system that will ensure it lands gently on the red planet's surface within minutes of tearing through its atmosphere at 13,600 miles per hour. The 'visitor' , NASA's latest Mars exploration rover, a robot called Curiosity that weighs a little more than a hatchback on the road, will probe the Martian surface for signs of habitability.

It will be a touch-down that will be closely watched, especially by space scientists from China and India. Before it launched its first woman into space last week, China had attempted to send a satellite to Mars, which failed to clear the earth's orbit, and was declared lost.

It's a scenario Indian space scientists would be hoping they don't have to face. For, if things go as per plan, Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) would be launching its first mission to Mars tentatively by next year. This year's budget has already allocated Rs 125 crore for project, which would be an orbiting satellite somewhat similar to China's failed attempt. ISRO scientists have begun deliberating on the scientific payloads for the orbiter that would go around in an elliptical orbit around Mars, collecting data on the planet's atmosphere. However, they are cagey about divulging too many details, saying that Cabinet approval for the project hasn't come through yet.

J N Goswami, director of ISRO's Physical Research Laboratory, who had spearheaded the agency's moon mission, Chandrayaan-I , and is also involved in the Mars project, says in an email response, "Although no mission team has been announced till now, we are encouraging efforts to see if laboratory models of some of the proposed experiments can be made so that as and when we get the opportunity for the Mars mission, we do not start from scratch." ISRO's interest in Mars might not be surprising. After the success of Chandrayaan-I , the agency has gained confidence in assembling and operating a complicated space mission. The move to Mars could become the next step in its technology-building capability. Also, if it manages to get mission-ready by November 2013 -- when the planet's orbital dynamics make it a good time to launch -- it might just have a heads-up on China. "India is lagging behind China in the manned space programme department and although human spaceflight is still a line item on ISRO's budget, India seems to be distinguishing itself from its superpower neighbour by pursuing more scientifically oriented robotic missions," says Jeffrey Marlow of the California Institute of Technology.

While going to Mars might be a super confidence-booster , many are not sure whether India's attempt would add much to the scientific knowledge already acquired by previous missions, especially that of NASA and the Russian Space Agency which have been sending probes to the red planet since the 1960s. "My impression is that this is purely a technical mission with some science payloads thrown in for added value. It cannot add much science to the already existing body of knowledge done by existing missions such as NASA's Mars Observer," says Jayant Murthy of the Indian Institute of Astrophysics.

However, the indigenous Mars orbiter might just be capable of throwing up some surprises, not unlike Chandrayaan-I which found water molecules on the lunar surface . The trump card for ISRO could be the Methane Sensor, which is reportedly one of the instruments being considered to be put onboard. In 2009, NASA scientist Michael Mumma had spotted substantial plumes of methane in the Martian atmosphere . According to Marlow, Mumma's results are worth a second, closer look. "NASA is eager to fly a mission to study the Martian atmosphere in more detail, but India might beat it to the punch."

But in order to do so, ISRO must meet the November 2013 launch window target. Otherwise, the next dates -- when the planet's orbital dynamics are suitable -- are in 2016 and 2018, by when other countries like Russia and the European Space Agency would have put their probes in orbit. Also, a mission to Mars involves substantial technical bottlenecks which Indian scientists would need to overcome.

In order to put its orbiter in place, ISRO is planning to use its old warhorse -- the tried and tested PSLV (Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle), which it had successfully deployed during its moon mission. However, according to Amitabha Ghosh, a scientist working with NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Mission, Mars will be a different ball-game and ISRO will have to keep in mind a number of factors to prepare its vehicle for the nine-month long journey. "The spacecraft would need a greater degree of built-in automation compared to a spacecraft headed to the moon, thereby posing a greater engineering challenge ," he says.[/size]
"Были когда-то и мы рысаками!!!"

instml

July 10, 2012

ISRO to host the 39th Scientific Assembly of the Committee on Space Research (COSPAR-2012)

ЦитатаThe Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) is hosting the 39th Scientific Assembly of the Committee on Space Research (COSPAR) with the theme "Space - for the benefit of Mankind" in the palace city of Mysore. COSPAR 2012 is being organised at the N R Narayana Murthy Centre of Excellence, Infosys Campus, Mysore during July 14-22, 2012 to deliberate on the contemporary topics in the realm of space around the globe. This conference is co-hosted by Infosys Technologies Limited. ISRO had earlier hosted the COSPAR conference in 1979 at Bangalore.

Professor U R Rao, Chairman, Physical Research Laboratory (PRL) Council and former Chairman, ISRO is the Chair of the COSPAR Scientific Program Committee. Dr. Giovanni F Bignami, Chairman of European Space Agency's Advisory Council, is the current President of COSPAR.

Founded in 1958 by the International Council for Science (ICSU), COSPAR is considered as one of the foremost space science research associations. It has both National Scientific Institutions and International Scientific Unions as members. The objectives of COSPAR are to promote scientific research in space on an international level, with emphasis on the exchange of results, information and opinions, and to provide a forum, open to all scientists, for the discussion of problems that may affect scientific space research. These objectives are achieved through the organisation of scientific assemblies, publications and other means. The COSPAR Scientific Assembly provides the world's largest interdisciplinary forum for the exchange of recent results in the area of space research and, therefore, is a particularly important meeting for members participating in the scientific activities.

COSPAR offers an excellent platform to present India as a significant venue for space research and innovation. Hosting this prestigious event in India offers our scientists an opportunity to get actively involved and benefit from the interactions with their global counterparts. COSPAR also encourages students' participation and provides opportunities for them to meet and interact with space science professionals, members of academia, space industries and government bodies from all over the world.

This weeklong gathering of more than 2,500 scientists and students from 75 countries will witness presentations on over 3600 scientific papers, posters and reports through more than 630 sessions.

The delegates will experience a space agency round table whose participants will present a vision for space in 2020 and beyond. Apart from this, six Interdisciplinary Lectures, a presentation of COSPAR's recent study titled "A Space Astronomy Global Road Map for the Next Decades," and a public lecture on Exo-planets, would be presented by top experts. Dr. K Radhakrishnan, Chairman, ISRO will put forward India's space vision in the space agency's round table.

The conference will start with International Academy of Astronautics (IAA) day on July 14, 2012 and the scientific sessions of COSPAR will start from July 15, 2012. The Opening and Awards Ceremony of the conference will be held at the Multiplex, Infosys campus on the July 16, 2012.

Additional information on COSPAR 2012 can be found at www.cospar2012india.org
http://isro.org/pressrelease/scripts/pressreleasein.aspx?Jul10_2012
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Satellites See Unprecedented Greenland Ice Sheet Surface Melt
07.24.12

Цитата

Extent of surface melt over Greenland's ice sheet on July 8 (left) and July 12 (right). Measurements from three satellites showed that on July 8, about 40 percent of the ice sheet had undergone thawing at or near the surface. In just a few days, the melting had dramatically accelerated and an estimated 97 percent of the ice sheet surface had thawed by July 12. In the image, the areas classified as "probable melt" (light pink) correspond to those sites where at least one satellite detected surface melting. The areas classified as "melt" (dark pink) correspond to sites where two or three satellites detected surface melting. The satellites are measuring different physical properties at different scales and are passing over Greenland at different times. As a whole, they provide a picture of an extreme melt event about which scientists are very confident. Credit: Nicolo E. DiGirolamo, SSAI/NASA GSFC, and Jesse Allen, NASA Earth Observatory

For several days this month, Greenland's surface ice cover melted over a larger area than at any time in more than 30 years of satellite observations. Nearly the entire ice cover of Greenland, from its thin, low-lying coastal edges to its two-mile-thick center, experienced some degree of melting at its surface, according to measurements from three independent satellites analyzed by NASA and university scientists.

On average in the summer, about half of the surface of Greenland's ice sheet naturally melts. At high elevations, most of that melt water quickly refreezes in place. Near the coast, some of the melt water is retained by the ice sheet and the rest is lost to the ocean. But this year the extent of ice melting at or near the surface jumped dramatically. According to satellite data, an estimated 97 percent of the ice sheet surface thawed at some point in mid-July.

Researchers have not yet determined whether this extensive melt event will affect the overall volume of ice loss this summer and contribute to sea level rise.

"The Greenland ice sheet is a vast area with a varied history of change. This event, combined with other natural but uncommon phenomena, such as the large calving event last week on Petermann Glacier, are part of a complex story," said Tom Wagner, NASA's cryosphere program manager in Washington. "Satellite observations are helping us understand how events like these may relate to one another as well as to the broader climate system."

Son Nghiem of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, Calif., was analyzing radar data from the Indian Space Research Organisation's (ISRO) Oceansat-2 satellite last week when he noticed that most of Greenland appeared to have undergone surface melting on July 12. Nghiem said, "This was so extraordinary that at first I questioned the result: was this real or was it due to a data error?"

Nghiem consulted with Dorothy Hall at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md. Hall studies the surface temperature of Greenland using the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra and Aqua satellites. She confirmed that MODIS showed unusually high temperatures and that melt was extensive over the ice sheet surface.

Thomas Mote, a climatologist at the University of Georgia, Athens, Ga; and Marco Tedesco of City University of New York also confirmed the melt seen by Oceansat-2 and MODIS with passive-microwave satellite data from the Special Sensor Microwave Imager/Sounder on a U.S. Air Force meteorological satellite.

The melting spread quickly. Melt maps derived from the three satellites showed that on July 8, about 40 percent of the ice sheet's surface had melted. By July 12, 97 percent had melted.

This extreme melt event coincided with an unusually strong ridge of warm air, or a heat dome, over Greenland. The ridge was one of a series that has dominated Greenland's weather since the end of May. "Each successive ridge has been stronger than the previous one," said Mote. This latest heat dome started to move over Greenland on July 8, and then parked itself over the ice sheet about three days later. By July 16, it had begun to dissipate.

Even the area around Summit Station in central Greenland, which at 2 miles above sea level is near the highest point of the ice sheet, showed signs of melting. Such pronounced melting at Summit and across the ice sheet has not occurred since 1889, according to ice cores analyzed by Kaitlin Keegan at Dartmouth College in Hanover, N.H. A National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration weather station at Summit confirmed air temperatures hovered above or within a degree of freezing for several hours July 11-12.

"Ice cores from Summit show that melting events of this type occur about once every 150 years on average. With the last one happening in 1889, this event is right on time," says Lora Koenig, a Goddard glaciologist and a member of the research team analyzing the satellite data. "But if we continue to observe melting events like this in upcoming years, it will be worrisome."

Nghiem's finding while analyzing Oceansat-2 data was the kind of benefit that NASA and ISRO had hoped to stimulate when they signed an agreement in March 2012 to cooperate on Oceansat-2 by sharing data.
http://www.nasa.gov/topics/earth/features/greenland-melt.html
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Беспрецедентная скорость таяния гренландских льдов вызвала тревогу учёных
ЦитатаНациональное управление США по аэронавтике и исследованию космического пространства NASA распространило спутниковые фотографии, которые показывают, что площадь таяния льда в Гренландии резко увеличилась всего за четыре дня примерно с 50% до 97% в связи с беспрецедентно высокими температурами.

Информация об интенсивном таянии льда в Гренландии была настолько необычна, что учёные заподозрили ошибку в расчётах. Однако, после того как Сон Нгием (Son Nghiem) из Лаборатории реактивного движения NASA сравнил её с фотографиями, полученными с другого спутника, данные подтвердились.

На 8 июля в Гренландии растаяло около 40% площади ледяной шапки, а 12 июля -- уже 97%. Даже в высшей точке гренландского ледника близкие к нулю температуры привели к таянию льда.

Получается, в июле этого года на самом большом в мире острове растаяло больше льда, чем за все 30 лет, в течение которых учёные изучают этот регион, сообщает ИТАР-ТАСС.

Обычно в летний период в Гренландии тает около половины ледяного покрова. Прежний максимум составлял всего 55%. На возвышенностях большая часть этой талой воды, как правило, вновь быстро замерзает.

"Ледяная шапка Гренландии -- это обширный ареал с богатой историей изменений, -- рассказывает координатор программы изучения криосферы NASA Томас Вагнер (Thomas Wagner). -- Июльские события в сочетании с другими также естественными, но необычными явлениями, как раскол на прошлой неделе ледника Петермана, -- часть этой сложной истории".

"Ядра льда на вершине гренландского ледника показывают, что таяние такого типа происходит в среднем раз в 150 лет, -- добавляет Лора Кёниг (Lora Koenig), гляциолог Центра космических полётов имени Роберта Годдарда, которая входила в группу, анализировавшую спутниковые фотоснимки. -- Последнее крупное таяние случилось в 1899 году, что соответствует срокам. Однако если мы будем наблюдать подобное таяние и в последующие годы, это должно будет вызвать тревогу".

Ледник в настоящее время покрывает около 80% территории Гренландии и содержит около 20% мировых запасов льдов. Если весь гренландский лёд растает, это, по мнению учёных, приведёт к подъёму уровня Мирового океана на 6,4 метра.

Гренландия -- крупнейший остров в мире, расположенный между Исландией и Канадой. Она в 3 раза больше Франции, а 80% её территории, большая часть которой лежит за Полярным кругом, покрыто льдом. Гренландия обладает 10% запасов пресной воды на планете.

До 1953 года Гренландия была датской колонией, сейчас она имеет статус автономной территории в составе датского королевства. Многие гренландцы, однако, рассматривают автономию как шаг к полной независимости, так как предполагается, что в окружающих остров водах имеются значительные запасы углеводородов и других полезных ископаемых.
http://www.vesti.ru/doc.html?id=859254&cid=2161
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Антикосмит

А причем тут индийский космос?
Your empire needs you!

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ЦитатаА причем тут индийский космос?

Oceansat-2
http://isro.org/satellites/oceansat-2.aspx

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Salo

http://zeenews.india.com/news/nation/k-shivakumar-is-now-the-director-of-isro-isac_790631.html
ЦитатаK Shivakumar is now the Director of ISRO (ISAC)[/size]
Last Updated: Monday, July 30, 2012, 16:02

 Bangalore: S K Shivakumar, Distinguished Scientist and Associate Director, ISRO Satellite Centre (ISAC), Bangalore, assumed the office of Director, ISAC on Monday.

 He took over the charge from Dr T K Alex, the outgoing Director. ISAC is ISRO?s premier centre for conceptualisation, design, fabrication, testing, integration and in-orbit commissioning of satellite systems involving various cutting edge technologies, an ISRO release stated.  

 Shivakumar began his carrier in ISRO by joining ISRO Telemetry, Tracking and Command Network (ISTRAC) in 1976 at Sriharikota and later served ISAC for two decades during which he made immense contribution to the mission planning, analysis and operations of several Indian satellite missions including Bhaskara, APPLE, IRS and INSAT.

 He served as Mission Director for IRS-1B and IRS-1C satellites which successfully completed a decade of operations in orbit. From September 1998 to November 2010, Shivakumar was Director, ISTRAC, which maintains the large constellation of Indian Remote Sensing Satellites in orbit and provides support to satellite launch vehicle missions with a world-wide network of ground stations.

 Shivakumar was also the Project Director for realising India?s first indigenous Deep Space Network antenna that measures 32 metres (100 feet) in diameter at Byalalu, near Bangalore. Besides, he played a key role in realising the entire ground segment for Chandrayaan-1 mission including the Indian Space Science Data Centre at Byalalu.

 As Associate Director of ISAC since November 2010, he has steered the design and realisation of many communication, remote sensing, navigation and scientific satellites.

 PTI[/size]
"Были когда-то и мы рысаками!!!"